A review of experimental techniques for the investigation of natural ventilation in buildings.

After discussing briefly the principles of natural ventilation, goes on to describe tracer gas techniques, air movement measurements, and various model techniques including analogues. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are indicated, andtheir suitability for particular applications.

Ventilation measurements in houses and the influence of wall ventilators.

Using nitrous oxide as a tracer, the author made 390 measurements of ventilation rates in seven closed rooms of six houses, in Melbourne, Australia. Half of the observations were taken when the wall ventilators were sealed, in order to explore their influence on room ventilation. Results for each room, grouped in ranges of wind direction and according to whether ventilators were open or closed, are shown as regression curveson plots of ventilation rate against wind speed. The ventilators are shown to have only a slight effect on ventilation.

Summer infiltration rates in mobile homes.

Treats measurements of air infiltration rate in 2 mobile homes - one treated with caulking, the other with continuous sheathing board - over entire heating and cooling season. Concentrates on summertime data. Summarises results in graphs and tables. Analyses results to find general parabolic dependence on wind and linear dependence on temperature difference. In addition data exhibit marked reduction of infiltration attributed to use of continous sheathing board.

Airtightness and ventilation Tathet och ventilation

Describes measurements of airtightness and ventilation in prefabricated 'modulent' houses, 25 single-storey with habitable lofts and 8 single-storey, all with mechanical extract systems. Measurements used pressure method and tracer gas in houses with different airtightness, types of window, windproofing and facing materials. Possibility of presetting ventilation terminals and fans to achieve recommended airflows was investigated. Treatsrelationship between wind, temperature and airtightness. Notes number of shortcomings in ventilation system discovered during investigation.

Air infiltration measurements in a four-bedroom townhouse using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas.

Reports measurements in title. House was contained in environmental chamber with control over inside and outside temperature with essentially no wind velocity. Observes familiar correlation between inside-outside temperature difference andinfiltration rate, and effect of sealing doors and ducts underconditions of negligible wind velocity. Compares different methods of collecting air samples for analysis and compares SF6 measurements with air exchange rates imposed on the house by means of a centrifugal blower.

Air change rates in buildings. Byginingers luftskifte

Summarises results of research project comprising survey of air tightness and natural air change rates in various types of residential building. Briefly describes equipment for pressurization tests and tracer gas measurements. Compares properties, range of measurement and cost of 5 different tracer gases. Provides some results from measurements in 53 single family houses and 28 flats. 9 of tested dwellings had their tightness improved and supplementary measurements made.

Air infiltration in high rise buildings Infiltrace vzduchu ve vyskovych budovach.

Provides results of measurements of air infiltration and natural air movement in 3 high rise buildings (flats, university, offices). Gives measurements of pressure differences at doors and windows and between windward and leeward sides of buildings. Determines air flow through selected rooms by CO2 concentration measurements. States that data have contributed information towards new edition of Czechoslovak standard CSN 06 0210 concerning infiltration heat loss calculation in buildings.

Characterisation of building infiltration by the tracer-dilution method.

Notes importance of air infiltration for total energy budget of a structure and indoor-outdoor pollution. Treats briefly significant energy savings which can be achieved by reducing infiltration rates in buildings. Describes in detail tracer dilution method of determining infiltration rates, which entails measurement of the logarithmic dilution rate of a tracer gas concentration with respect to time.

Field studies of dependence of air infiltration on outside temperature and wind.

Expresses air infiltration rate measured using tracer gas in 2 similar town houses in terms of wind speed, wind direction, indoor-outdoor temperature difference, average rate of boiler firing and fraction of time that doors are open. Method yielded reproducible rates of air infiltration within 0.1 air exchanges per hour in any single one-week run once outside temperature, wind speed and wind direction were allowed for. States results partly reveal set of physical principles determining house air exchange rates which are so far poorly understood.

Multi-chamber theory of air infiltration

Estimates of air infiltration in houses based on tracer gas measurements have usually assumed house is a single perfect mixing chamber with incoming air instantaneously and uniformly diffused to all parts of the interior. Points out that in reality some parts of the house - basement or rooms with doors closed - exchange air only very slowly with other parts so that actual mixing is far from instantaneous. Presents theory and mathematics necessary to apply tracer gas method to buildings of many chambers.

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