Air leakage in split-level residences

Reports investigation of air change rates in two residences using helium as a tracer gas. Gives results of measured air change rates, wind speed and direction and internal to external temperature difference. Uses statistical method to compare results from the two residences and concludes that temperature coefficients were statistically different but that wind coefficients were not. Finds high dependence of infiltration rates on indoor to outdoor temperature difference and that values for air leakage obtained from current methods of estimation were lower than those actually experienced.

An examination of radioisotope techniques for the measurement of ventilation rate.

Examines the use of radioisotope tracers to measure ventilation rates of simple and multiple enclosures. Discusses accuracy of the methods in relation to results obtained in an experimental room with controlled ventilation. Describes an instrument which measures ventilation rates directly, following release of aradioisotope tracer. Demonstrates its accuracy and operating advantages.

Retrofitting an existing wood-frame residence for energy conservation-an experimental study

Describes retrofitting a wood-frame residence, having only limited insulation in the attic, to reduce its energy requirements for heating and cooling. The three retrofit stages comprised : reducing air leaks ; adding storm windows : andinstalling insulation in the floor, ceiling and walls. The housewas extensively insulated to evaluate energy savings and other performance factors. an economic model was used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of the retrofit options.

Infiltration tests at Ringway House, Basingstoke

Describes the results of an investigation carried out to determine the rate of fresh air infiltration that is experienced during the winter in a modern air conditioned office building. Six different methods were employed to estimate the rate of infiltration through the building, four by direct measurement and two by calculation. The methods of direct measurement were,tracer gas decay, measured air flow through one floor, measured air flow through one air conditioning unit and measured change on power demand.

Use of a portable gas chromatograph and tracer gas for rapid determination of air ventilation rates

Describes method of measuring the air-change rates using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. The system comprises a highly portable gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector. The system will detect tracer gas without interference from other materials which may be present. The technique takes about six minutes to determine the ventilation rate. Gives practical examples and suggest extensions of the technique for carrying out cross air movements, for example in a hospital.

An intercomparison of tracer gases used for air infiltration measurements.

Reviews ideal characteristics of a tracer gas and gives literature review of the subject. Reports tests made on a house in California giving a direct intercomparison between common tracer gases used to measure air infiltration rates in buildings. Results indicate that air exchange rates measured using sulphur hexafluoride are slightly larger than thosemeasured using methane or nitrous oxide. The ratio of air change rates measured using sulphur hexafluoride to air change rates measured concurrently using a lighter tracer gas was found to be 1.10 +/- 0.10

Air infiltration through revolving doors.

Describes experiments made to determine the air infiltration rate through revolving doors. Estimates infiltration by combining air leakage past the door seals with infiltration caused by the revolving of the door. Finds that air exchange depends on door speed and temperature differential and somewhat on wind and indoor air velocities. Gives flow past the door seals as function of indoor -outdoor pressure differential and flow related to door movement for a motor- driven revolving door and for a manually operated door for traffic rates up to 2000 people per hour.

The measurement of the rate of air change.

Gives an account of a method of measuring the ventilation rate of a room using hydrogen as a tracer gas. Describes katharometer used to detect the gas and the experimental procedure. Results agree well with those calculated by orifice plate method.

Measurement of ventilation using tracer gas technique.

Outlines ventilation measurements being made on two storey semi-detached houses using helium as a tracer gas. Describes measurement of decay rates in single rooms, the recirculation between two rooms and by summation the ventilation rate of thewhole house. Describes installation used to measure ventilation rates when homes are occupied without interfering with the normallife of tenants.

Energy conservation in an old 3-story apartment complex.

Reports study of the potential for energy saving in an old low-rise, 50 unit apartment building. Energy use and heat balance of the building are calculated including heat loss through conduction and air infiltration. Also gives estimate of infiltration rate from a room found using first water vapour thensulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. Suggests various strategies for energy conservation which would result in a 30% saving in fuel. Methods are applicable to a wider class of old buildings