Instrumentation for monitoring energy usage in buildings at Twin Rivers.

The measurement systems used at Twin Rivers for determining energy usage are described. These include a weather station, three different systems for the measurement of temperatures and energy-related events in a house, a tracer-gas based air infiltration measurement system and infrared thermography

The prediction of ventilation rates in houses and the implications for energy conservation

Developes mathematical model of air infiltration based on crack flow equations. Describes measurements made on test house. Shows that actual pressure distributions in walls deviate considerably from values in guidebooks. Finds background leakage area of house by pressurizing house with electric fan and measuring pressures. Suggests two distributions for leakage areas. Measures infiltration rate using helium tracer gas, recording temperature and pressure differences. Concludes that comparison between prediction and experimental results is encouraging.

Determination of the ventilation rate in a series of social houses

Describes the determination of infiltration rates for houses in Seneffe. Gives infiltration rates for individual rooms, found using O2 as tracer gas, and recording wind speed and direction. Determines global air renewal rate using N2O as tracer gas, by injecting gas through ventilators into all rooms and measuring concentration in each room. Calculates global concentration from individual measurements.

Comparison of measured and computer-predicted thermal performance of a four bedroom wood-frame townhouse.

Measurements of the dynamic heat transfer in a four-bedroom townhouse were made under controlled conditions in a large environmental chamber to explore the viability of a computer program developed at N.B.S. labelled NBSLD for predicting heating and cooling loads and inside temperatures. Test house was factory-produced, of modular design and lightweight (wood) construction. Tests were performed with simulated outside summer, winter and autumn diurnal temperature cycles. Inside temperature was maintained at 75 f and the activities of a six-member family were simulated.

An automated controlled-flow air infiltration measurement system.

Presents description of an automated, controlled-flow air infiltration measurement system. This system measures total air flow, a volume per unit time, due to infiltration in a test space. Data analysis is discussed and the mixing problem analysed. Different modes of operating the system are considered : (1) concentration decay, (2) continuous flow in a single chamber and (3) continuous flow in a multichamber enclosure. Problems associated with the use of nitrous oxide as a tracer gas are described.

Ventilation measurement with a candle as a tracer gas source. Ventilationsmatning med laga som spargaskalla.

Practical measurement has shown that gasoil and candle flames provide constant tracer gas sources. Suggests their use for meaSuring ventilation. suggests application in temporary dwellings such as caravans, using candle as simulated "people" consuming oxygen and producing heat and carbon dioxide. Describes measurement methods using natural decay exponential equation. Graph illustrates sequence when air change rate fulfills requirements in swedish building code 1975 of 0.5 change/hour.

Approaches to evaluation of air infiltration energy losses in buildings.

Outlines parameters governing air infiltration. Discusses problem areas of house to house comparisons of air leakage. Deals primarily with tracer gas procedure as compared with pressurisation/depressurisation approach. Describes testing in townhouses of recent construction as well as in a number of older homes of varied design. Uses roof-top laboratory test chamber to examine relations between wind effects, buoyancy effects and building openings and how they effect air infiltration. Uses results to clarify evaluation of air infiltration.

The calculation of house infiltration rates.

Describes how in 1960-62 National Research Council of Canada conducted air infiltration measurements on 2 single-storey houses using helium as a tracer gas, followed in 1967-68 by measurement of air leakage characteristics using house pressurisation technique. Describes procedure developed from these tests for calculating infiltration rates. Gives equations for calculating infiltration due to stack effect and that due to wind action. Gives equation for combined effect.

Ventilation measurements in the Norris Cotton Federal Office Building in Manchester, NH

Reports measurements of ventilation rate in specially designed low energy office building. Air change rates were measured using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas and air samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide. Gives tables of results. Discusses analysis of ventilation from CO2 data. Concludes that most of the spaces in the building were operating at or above recommended levels.

The development of tracer gas methods for measuring air changes. Utveckling av spargasmetoden for matning av luftvaxling.

Notes principle of air change rate measurement using natural growth exponential equation to measure concentration of tracer gas. Experience shows that period required for satisfactory measurement is often periodicity of air change rate. Diagram relates linear and logarithmic scales used in air change equation. Describes use of pre-programmed gas analysis equipment allowing extrapolation to forecast results. Uses microprocessor for evaluation. Also discusses importance of instrument calibration.