A supply of fresh air is necessary in any dwelling to ensure a comfortable, safe and hygienic environment, but the heat loss to this air, during the heating season, may represent a substantial proportion of the total heat loss. This points to the need forgreater control of domestic ventilation, either by using a mechanical system or by better design for natural ventilation. This paper touches upon both of these possibilities. Gives simple method for assessing approximately the possible reduction in heat loss achieved by the use of a mechanical ventilation system.
Describes detailed study of infiltration rates measured with a tracer gas and air leakage rates obtained from fan pressurization in small, 3 - bedroom California house as part of a larger study. Finds surface pressure measurements are an essential step in process of finding a correlation between natural air infiltration and air leakage by pressurization. Measurements also show significant duct leakage and air flow between attic, living space and crawl space.
Derives equations for the calculation of air-change-rate in a room where carbon dioxide is being produced at a known rate using the measured initial and final concentrations of CO2. Also derives expression for the calculation of air-change-rate with no source of CO2 but a high initial concentration
Reports the investigation of the natural ventilation of three test houses. Describes the houses which were of standard design. Natural ventilation rates were measured using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. An energy audit was also performed using a fan to pressurize and depressurize the house and an infrared scanner to detect the leakage paths. The tracer gas measurements were converted to a format similar to thepressurization results by using a previously developed model. Gives results in the form of graphs.
Discusses ways of increasing accuracy and thoroughness of energy audits of buildings by use of specialized instruments and improved audit techniques. States air infiltration measurements are key item in audit procedure. Describes 'house doctor' kitwhich with records of past energy usage, knowledge of prevailing weather and a questionnaire are used to establish the energy signature of a house. The kit includes blower door, infrared camera, temperature probes and appliance consumption meter. Describes simple tracer gas method using sulphur hexafluoride collected in sample bottles.
Shows need for intermittent high ventilation in dwellings to remove water vapour and odours. Suggests openable windows as the simplest and most common method of ventilation control. Gives air-change-rates in two british houses using carbon dioxide andnitrous oxide as tracer gases, showing the effect of opening windows. Shows that increase in ventilation rate caused by opening windows can be tenfold and is not confined to the room with the open window. Closing of internal doors has a significant effect. Describes investigation of air flow within rooms using smoke.
Give method for collecting and analysing sulphur hexafluoride used as a tracer gas. The gas is separated by gas chromatography from other components of moist air on columns of silica gel and activated carbon in series and is detected by electron-capture analysis in concentrations near 1 p.p.b. states that sensitivity can be enhanced at least 2000-fold by freeze-out concentration. States that SF6 backgrounds in air are undetectable except near leakage sources such as transformers.
Describes the two major methods of measuring air leakage in buildings; the tracer gas method and the pressure method. The three ways of using tracer gas are with decreasing gas concentration, constant gas concentration, and with constant gasrelease. In Sweden nitrous oxide is normally used. The results of the tracer gas method may depend on the weather at the time of measurement. The pressure method is fast and accurate, but only gives the total leakage through the building. Local differences can be detected by use of infrared photography.
Reports measurements in seven groups of town house in Gavle, Sweden of concentrations of radon and daughter products. Gives results with the type of building materials, the ventilation systems and air-change rates measured using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas. Gives formula for the permitted limits of radionucleides in building materials. Discussed results and concludes that the concentration of radon does not differ significantly from single family to multi-family houses.