In this paper, we use the validation test cases initialized within the subtask C, "Daylight design tools", of IEA SHC Task 21, "Daylight in buildings" to assess the accuracy of a commercial lighting software, Lightscape 3.2. We first analyzed the applicability and the limitations of the IEA 21 test cases, and we concluded some directives for validation test cases in order to guaranty its applicability to assess any lighting software.
Together with the definition of innovative plant and envelope technological solutions for buildings, many simulation tools (models) have been developed to make the design choices easier. However the definition of analytical structures able to describe the characteristics of building components installed under real conditions is still difficult. The paper presents some experiences made by ITC. They have been carried out by using System Identification techniques to simulate and predict the performances of various components analysed also through experimental campaigns under real conditions.
Energy performance standardisation evaluates all measures at the building and building services level that improve energy efficiency. Thermostatic valves are one of the choices, which are considered. To demonstrate their effect, a detached house, a terraced house and an apartment with three different levels of thermal insulation and hydronic heating were evaluated. Variants considered were (1) the fuel, (2) the boiler and (4) thermostatic valves or not. The TRNSYS and BOILSIM tools were used to simulate an Ukkel TRY-year.
In a test cell equipped with an operating table, a medical lamp and a manikin representing the surgeon, air velocity and tracer-gas concentration were automatically measured at more than 700 points. Numerical simulations were performed too for analyzing air quality in operating rooms. The results showed that the distribution of the contaminants depends strongly on the presence of obstacles like medical equipment and staff.
The author describes how to improve the usual formula to calculate air flow rate through an opened hopper window.Improvements consist in better taking into account the geometry of such windows when estimating their opened area and also in adapting to this type of windows the model used to take into account the influence of wind and of thermal draught.Improved model gives a good comparison with on site measured data from the literature.
Indoor aerosol particles, their concentration and deposition in displacement, their movements in two ventilated rooms are compared numerically. For the simulation of particle tracks, the discrete trajectory model is adopted whereas the Eularian method is used for solving the continuous fluid flow.
There is a resurgence of interest in naturally ventilated offices. Most of the time, cooling the buildings is possible with the opening of windows. Simulations with the softwere TAS were made and showed that window opening allow a sufficient day or night ventilation rate, even if wind characteristics are not favourable. The optimal size, shape and location of the window apertures to reach sufficient ventilation rates has been studied along with the impact of the wind orientation and the building degree of protection on these ventilation rates.
For that study, 12 office rooms of a "Solar Optimised Building" in Germany have been monitored. The data have been evaluated by a new method for analysis that deals with short and long term measurements and with building simulation. A comparison between monitored data and simulation of a building with passive cooling by night ventilation is made on a long period.
A PMV (predicted mean vote) index is often adopted to assess the thermal comfort conditions of thermal moderate environments, but to prevent problems when monitoring or controlling HVAC equipment a fuzzy adaptive controller has been introduced. That paper gives a description of the method along with the presentation of simulation results .
A supply air window enables the pre-heating in winter of ventilation air before it enters the room.The window device must entrain into the room the air flow that would otherwise escape, it allows the absorption of the solar radiant energy and a low emissivity coating within the glazing assembly must be correctly located. To achieve a better performance of the window, tests were carried out. A simulation model was built and comparison of the results were made.