An experimental investigation of wind-induced pressure loads acting on two square-plan flat-roofed model structures (50ft and 225ft high in full scale) is described. Measurements of mean, peak and root mean square pressures acting on points and over larger roof areas have been made in turbulent boundary layer flow simulating wind over urban and open country terrains. Area loads on the roofs have been measured both by a pneumatic-averaging technique, and by using a large flush-diaphragm transducer.
The potential for energy consevation in space heating of new residential buildings is characterized using results from computer analysis, and from a survey of low-energy houses. Simulations of the energy requirements of a proto-type house in the USA at different levels of conservation show that much higher levels of conservation then those presently employed in new houses result in minimum life-cycle costs.
Discusses difficulties inherent in multiplexity of full-scale trials and the use of EDP simulation in models. Considers the measurement of low air movement velocities using different types of anemometers and field trials in lecture rooms and open-plan offices. Reports on studies into ventilation efficiency and full scale trials. Reviews International Institute of Refrigeration Congress held in Essen September 1981.
Describes a variation of the conventional tracer gas measurement technique for measuring air change rates. Gives theoretical analysis of measurement results simulated with a computer for a complex system of six rooms where natural ventilation is measured in one case and fan-arrested ventilation in thesecond. Results from computer simulation are a measure of fresh air ventilation and not of a room's total air change rate. Diagrams illustrate assumed distribution under both conditions.
A short note giving formulae for the design of spires for use in simulating the planetary boundary layer. Gives expressions for the height and base length of triangular spires which will produce given values of the boundary layer thickness and power-law exponent. Gives comparisons of calculated values with experimental data.
Gives a brief historical review of the development of wind engineering as a discipline. Discusses the simulation of wind loads on buildings, the development of boundary layer wind tunnels and problems in modelling the natural wind. Describes modelling of the aerolastic behaviour of buildings andof stack gas diffusion. Describes instrumentation and measurement techniques. Indicates areas requiring further development.
Describes further experiments from the wind tunnel simulation of wind pressures on the Aylesbury housing estate. These experiments are not concerned with the acquisition of further data, but are designed to examine the validity of measurements.< Discusses the effect of varying observation and averaging times. Reports results of experiments, varying these times, but finds no observable trends in the dispersion results.
Contains two papers reprinted from the Jnl. of Ind. Aerodynamics:-< 1) Wind-tunnel simulation of the adiabatic atmospheric boundary layer by roughess, barrier and mixing-device methods.< Discusses the philosophy of roughness, barrier and mixing-device simulation methods. Illustrates methods by measurements of simulations in the B.R.E.boundary layer wind tunnel.