The BKL-method - A simplified method to predict energy consumption in buildings

Presents a simplified method for estimating heat consumption in buildings. The basis of the method are presented, along with an example of how to apply it. The method requires climatic data in a specific form and the way to calculate this is also discussed. Finally, gives some comparisons between results from this method and detailed computer simulations.

Computed energy consumption for new and existing high rise residential buildings - suggested norms and potential reductions.

Develops a model apartment building based upon existing surveys of such buildings and computer simulations carried out to determine the independent effects of climate and size on its energy consumption. The Meriwether Energy System Analysis program used has previously been calibrated by simulating four existing buildings of known energy consumption. From these results, develops data which enables a norm to be derived from the energy consumption of any high rise apartment building at any location in Canada.

Simplified energy analysis methodology for commercial buildings.

Commercial building energy analyses may be used for new building design, energy end use forecasting and energy audit calculations. Many building simulation programs, such as DOE 2.1A or BLAST, are quite complex and must berun by specialists on main frame computers. A simplified method of commercial building energy analysis has been developed and utilises a database of previous DOE 2.1A simulations to predict the outcome of other simulations. Applies this method to an office building in one climate region and finds that it predicts heating, cooling, and total energy use very accurately.

Determination of thermal parameters for an occupied house.

Investigates the energy performance of a two storey occupied gas heated house in Ontario Canada by means of steady state and dynamic analyses of measured data. Experimental results were obtained from a monitoring study done on an hourly basis.

Development of a simulation program for heat loads and room temperatures of a residential building.

Describes a detailed simulation program for estimating heat loads and room air temperatures of a residential building. Sets out the algorithms and the example simulation of a house by the program. As room surface temperaures and natural ventilation are important factors in considering the thermal environment and the heat load of the room, they are treated more rigorously than in a previously developed program.

Building performance evaluation based on comfort criteria.

The Fanger Comfort Equation is coupled to a building simulation model. Discusses some factors related to thermal comfort. Incorporates variables influencing comfort as subroutines in the main thermal analysis program. If the temperature calculated is significantly different from the prevailing air temperature, amelioration measures such as changes in the rate of ventilation (natural or mechanical) or conditioning of air are determined by thesubroutine CONAIR.

A low-cost computer-assisted energy diagnostic package to improve overall energy efficiency of existing and new buildings.

Develops and tests a low-cost computer-assisted diagnostic package to supply the architect and engineer with key information and understanding of the energy use, balance and resulting saving potential of existing and new buildings. The energy balance is shown in a standard graph. Heat losses are calculated in oil equivalent. The program has its own database for typical thermal performance values of different building types and meteorological data of 26 sites within Switzerland.

Outdoor testing of small scale naturally ventilated models.

Proposes a new experimental technique for investigating the natural ventilation potential of new building designs. The method tests scale models of ventilated buildings outdoors in the natural wind. Results from this method agree closely with data from a similar full-scale building. Discusses use of this method by building designers.

Development of a thermal design tool.

Describes a computer program, Harmon, developed for the simulation of the thermal response of buildings (based on BRE's "admittance procedure") which can be used on mini-computers and utilized at the sketch design stage for the comparative evaluation of alternative designs. Gives an account of the validation exercises completed and outlines further intended refinements.

The impact of ventilation rates on the design of office buildings.

Reports on a study conducted to determine the impact of different ventilation rates on office building energy use, first cost, and peak electrical demand. Uses the DOE-2.1 computer program to simulate an energy-efficient office building in 5 cit