Current asthma and respiratory symptoms among pupils in Shanghai schools, in relation to indoor mould growth and exposure to traffic exhausts in the schools

We measured the temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3),nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and formaldehyde levels in 30 classrooms in 10 schools in Shanghai.The pupils received a questionnaire; 1414 participated (99%). The temperature was 13-21C,and RH was 36-82%. The 1000 ppm CO2 level was exceeded in 45% of the classrooms.Indoor formaldehyde was 3-20 g/m3. The concentration of O3 was low, both indoors (

IEA ECBCS Annex 36 : Energy Concept Adviser for Technical Retrofit Measures - An internet-based Tool on Information, Assessment and Concept Development of Energy-saving Retrofit Strategies

Research partners of 10 different countries are developing a computer tool in the framework of IEA ECBCS Annex 36, which helps decision makers to include the most energy-efficient and economic technical retrofit measures into the retrofit of their educational buildings.

Ventilation and air leakage

Buildings leak water and air : it is normal and impossible to avoid. So the architect and HVAC engineer's goal should be to recognize the concept of building air leakage and account for it in :- quantifying leakage- reducing it if excessive- controlling leakage by managing air pressures with the HVAC system.The aim of this article is to discuss the methods for measuring and expressing leakage and to report the results of a cas study, San Carlos Park elementary school in Fort Myers, Florida.

Energy efficiency and IAQ - Simultaneous improvements in relocatable classrooms.

The aim of that study was to demonstrate the potential to design buildings that can simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality along with a reduction of energy. In that order 4 energy-efficient relocatable classrooms were designed and constructed, each equipped with two different HVAC systems (heat-pump air-conditioning system and an energy-efficient indirect/direct evaporative cooler). Results are presented.

IEA ECBCS Annex 36 : retrofitting in educational buildings - REDUCE 25 case study reports from 10 different countries

The IEA ECBCS Annex 36 deals with the energy retrofit of educational buildings. Researchers from 10 participating countries from Europe and the US are collecting information on retrofit measures and case studies and are developing an energy concept adviser for technical retrofit measures. This internet-based computer tool for decision-makers is the main outcome of the annex. One of the most important inputs to the tool is the collection and assessment of case studies, which is also presented in a specific report.

Increased levels of bacterial markers and CO2 in occupied schools

The aim of this study was to test the following hypthesis : in schools, bacterial markers may be increased in indoor air because of the presence of children.Dust samples were collected from the school rooms when occupied but also when unoccupied during the week-end. Results have been analysed and the conclusion is that in unoccupied rooms the airborne dust is of environmental origin, whereas the increase level of dust in occupied rooms is due to the children presence.

Breathing freely in schools - results and model approaches concerning the air quality in classrooms (In German)

Carbon dioxide concentration, indoor air temperature and relative air humidity are studied in 7 schools with natural ventilation systems, during 58 days on one year. The results show that the level of 1500 ppm of CO2 is exceeded in 39 days. A software programme was developed to calculate the CO2 concentration level according to the number of pupils and the ventilation rate.
Health problems may result from a too low ventilation rate.

Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools. An analysis of existing information

This paper is a review and an exploration of the literature on indoor air quality in schools and the reported health problems related to it.The aim of that review was to identify health symptoms the most commonly reported in schools ;then to sum-up the existing measurement data on ventilation rate, CO2 concentrations and VOCs and biological contaminants in schools ; then sto um-up the information that exists on causal relationship between pollutant exposures and health symptoms in shools.

Building integrated ventilation - New Norwegian guide

A 64 page guide on building-integrated ventilation solutions has just been published in Norway. It is the culmination of 4 years of evaluation and experience from modern buildings, mainly schools with different forms of building-integrated ventilation systems.
This guide gives tentative conclusions about alternative system designs.

Cool & dry. Dual-path approach for a Florida school

Air quality in conditioned spaces can be improved even in humid locations, in Florida. A field experiment in a Florida school confirmed that the use of a dual-path air-distribution system with low temperature air can maintain lower and more comfortable humidity levels.
Furthermore, that system coupled with a thermal energy storage (TES) keeps energy use as low as possible, and makes costs savings.