For that study a mass balanced model is applied to determine area-specific emissions rates in office buildings. Sources of VOCs were identified, put into 3 broad categories and quantified : building materials (23.7 %), ventilation systems (39.0 %) and occupants and their activities (37.3 %) .
The simulation of airflow pattern in an office building in Singapore is based on the environmental conditions and the corresponding ventilation parmeters measured on a typical day. The findings of that study are reported in this paper.
The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of indoor environmental characteristics of hybrid - natural and mechanical - air conditioning systems in office buildings during intermediate seasons. The other objective was to obtain design data.
We describe the results of simple modelling and some laboratory experiments of the natural ventilation flows which can develop in an office building when air is supplied from a central atrium, passes through the floor-space of the building, and then vents through stacks at the perimeter of the building.
An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of photocatalytic air cleaning on perceivedair quality. Thirty-eight subjects assessed the air quality in a low-polluting, 108 m3 office, with pollution sources either present or absent behind a partition. The pollution sources were carpet, linoleum and chipboard. The office was ventilated with outdoor air at 0.6, 2.5, and 6 h-1. The air temperature was 22C and the relative humidity 40%.
In order to accurately design and analyze demand controlled volume ventilation systems, theoccupancy level in the room must be known. The occupancy level corresponds to the length of time people occupy a room. Since there is a lack of data for occupancy levels in regards to offices, this study reports on measured occupancy levels for three cell offices in Sweden. The same occupancy sensors were used as those found on the ventilation systems. The results showed that the occupancy level for an office was as low as 11.2%.
How can hybrid ventilation and natural ventilation significantly improve the indoor climate in retrofitted office and education buildings? During the last 5 years hybrid ventilation and natural ventilation have increasingly been utilised in refurbished and retrofitted buildings with great results. Utilising a newly developed system solution concept, it is illustrated how intelligent control of buildings can establish a good indoor climate with satisfied users. This article contains results from 4 building cases including two schools and two office buildings in Denmark and Switzerland.
This paper presents aspects of an office renovation project of the Social Insurance Institute (SII), the largest Social Security Organization in Greece. The project refers to small and larger SII office buildings, including various stages of intervention, ranging from the construction of new buildings, to renovation of existing buildings. Construction and electro-mechanical studies for each building were carried out in order to implement the appropriate and feasible actions.
Until the 1970’s most office buildings in central Europe were not equipped with mechanical cooling (airconditioning). Due to increasing requirements for thermal comfort and warmer summers, nowadays mechanical cooling is often applied to such buildings, ho
This paper presents a study on the variability in chemical exposures or individuals that are working in eight different office buildings in Sweden. The variability among buildings and the variability among individuals has been evaluated for a selected number of detected VOCs along with the ratio between the two variances.