A methodology for assessing the potential for a CO2 retrofit on an existing building is presented in this paper. A case study is described, the subject building is an Energy Star rated building that has a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. The complexity of a CO2 ventilation control retrofit is related to the type of building control system currently in place. Significant energy savings are possible through the application of a well-conceived executed ventilation control strategy.
Ventilation systems designed for a constant air volume (CAV) provide fresh air in office buildings. It means that very often huge amounts of energy can be wasted on ventilating empty offices. A simple analysis of the profitability of Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) has been performed on a reference office building in Norway.
In that study, Volatile Organic Compounds levels found in two tropical office buildings are analysed. The concentrations have been measured under different conditions of ventilation (normal occupancy with ventilating system working, and with the ventilation system shut down).
A field survey on thermal comfort in Algeria has never been previously attempted, and for this reason the present study was conducted. The present paper will present a field study of thermal comfort in Algeria. A thermal comfort survey has been held among 160 persons in 4 towns of Algeria representing three different climatic regions. The survey has been carried out in two different types of buildings: Domestic buildings and Office buildings. Subjective data were collected from 160 people by the use of questionnaires.
The main objective of our study was to know more about indoor air quality in offices building over a long period. Our study has been carried out in one building located downtown Lyon (France). Measurements have been carried out one day each month during a one year period. Indoor air quality in the offices along with the one of air flows of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) installation (outdoor air, blown air and returned air) has been characterised by temperature and relative humidity of air, dust concentration level, air biocontamination and CO2 concentrations.
The aim of this paper is to explain the results of a research project run in Yildiz Technical University which focuses on the optimum building envelope design for visual, thermal and acoustical comfort conditions in the offices placed in Istanbul city center. In this project, the building envelope alternatives are examined in terms of light, heat and sound considering the materials used mostly in Turkey.
In moderate climates, one promising feature to reduce the energy demand of office buildings for air conditioning without reducing comfort is passive cooling by night ventilation. An office building has been designed, realised and monitored for a long time period in the framework of the German research programme solar optimised buildings. The night cooling of the office building has been realised by natural ventilation.
This paper outlines the Europrosper project whose objectives are to :1. Consolidate and where appropriate harmonise methodologies for energy certification of existing office buildings across 6 European countries whilst allowing customisation in each country to accomodate existing techniques and national contexts2. Develop training courses to instruct practitioners on how to use the certification methods, to include self-certification procedures3. Conduct a demonstration phase and4.
Sixteen countries world wide have participated to this international programme (IEA ECBCS Annx 35) running from 1998 to 2002 about "Hybrid ventilation in new and retrofitted office buildings" . All results of the project are published in a booklet and a CD ROM. They have also be published onthe AIVC CD (see AIRBASE recording number 14923).
Thermal comfort for 227 occupants in 8 office buildings with displacement ventilation was investigated. The occupants' thermal sensation was close to the predictions by the PMV index. The main conclusion is that draught is the major local discomfort factor for the occupants, mainly at lower leg. The effect of vertical temperature gradients on occupants local discomfort did not appear as evident.