Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Mon, 10/28/2013 - 10:30
The scope of the research described in this paper is to develop, evaluate and propose a new empirical index, the so-called Index of Workplace Comfort (IWC), which quantifies the overall comfort sensation of a user in an office building. The proposed Index of Workplace Comfort is calculated on the basis of both environmental and psychological properly weighted sensation votes of workplace occupants.
Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Fri, 10/25/2013 - 16:39
In the light of global environmental problems, it is vital for buildings to conserve energy and make use of natural energies. Natural ventilation is one important method for achieving this. In houses, natural ventilation is a very attractive way to control the indoor environment. Compared to this, mid- to high-rise buildings include many closed spaces where windows cannot be opened and internal heat is trapped inside, which increases the cooling load. Based on this situation, consciousness of environmentally friendly buildings and utilization of natural energy becomes high.
Many modern office buildings have highly glazed facades. Their energy efficiency and indoor climateis, however, being questioned. Therefore more and more of these buildings are being built with doubleskin facades, which can provide: a thermal buffer zone, energy savings, wind protection with openwindows, fire protection, aesthetics, solar preheating of ventilation air, sound protection, pollutantprotection with open windows, nocturnal cooling and a site for incorporation of PV cells.
The authors have created a Neural-Fuzzy Assistant which acts as a Decision Support System and helps to perform quickly and easily the estimations of office building energy consumption. The Neural-Fuzzy Assistant presented in this paper allows the user to determine the impact of eleven building parameters on the electrical annual and monthly energy consumption, annual and monthly maximum electrical demand and cooling and heating annual consumption and demand.
Analytic models and static approaches as the case of Fanger, Deval, Sherman, Gagge, and Stolwijkmodels cannot completely predict indoor thermal comfort. Building designers could take advantage of adaptive approach of thermal comfort which can account for the complex interaction betweenoccupants and their environment that could affect their comfort.We had carried a field study in two office buildings on March 2005. It has included physicalmeasurements and questionnaires on thermal perception and appreciation.
The cooling loads of an office building vary with the desired indoor thermal climate. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how significantly the various indoor climate criteria affect the overallenvironmental performance of the air-conditioning systems. Here, we analyze the environmentalconsequences of the energy use, as well as the possible modifications of the system design andcorresponding use of materials. The analysis is based on a theoretical case study of an airconditioning system designed for a typical office building situated in Sweden.
The paper evaluates the potential work performance benefits of increased ventilation. We analysed the literature relating work performance with ventilation rate and employed statistical analyses. The studies included in the review assessed performance of various tasks in laboratory experiments and measured performance at work in real buildings. Almost all studies found increases in performance with higher ventilation rates. The studies indicated typically a 1-3 % improvement in average performance per 10 L/sperson increase in outdoor air ventilation rate.
There is a resurgence of interest in naturally ventilated offices. Most of the time, cooling the buildings is possible with the opening of windows. Simulations with the softwere TAS were made and showed that window opening allow a sufficient day or night ventilation rate, even if wind characteristics are not favourable. The optimal size, shape and location of the window apertures to reach sufficient ventilation rates has been studied along with the impact of the wind orientation and the building degree of protection on these ventilation rates.
For that study the measurement of parameters in the indoor environment were carried out with a simultaneous survey with questions dealing with elements of the indoor environment, health status and health problems. That study reveals a significant role for the psychological state and psychological factors of the respondents of natural ventilation when sujectively describing the indoor environment.