Occupants' influence on air change in dwellings.

The occupants' behaviour is one of the parameters which has the greatest influence on the air change in the dwelling. This applies both to naturally and to mechanically ventilated dwellings. On the basis of continuous measurement of the air change in 25 dwellings, the relation between the ventilation system and air change and between the number of occupants and air change is discussed. The air change in the 25 dwellings has been measured for a period of about one week during occupancy. The measuring principle applied is "the method with constant concentration of tracer gas".

Influence of the meteorological conditions on the inhabitants' behaviour in dwellings with mechanical ventilation.

Within the framework of the national research project "Ventilationin Housing Construction", studies on occupants ' ventilation behaviour were conducted in a demonstration building in Duisburg- Neumuhl (Federal Rep. of Germany) which also formed part of the project . Analyses were based on values measured from Jan, 1 - Dec. 31, 1984 in 24 flats with identical ground plans, all of which were equipped with mechanical ventilation systems.

Gravity driven flows through open doors.

Occupants can significantly influence both the heating energy requirements and the indoor air quality of a building by opening and closing doors and windows. If the effects of these actions are to be accurately estimated, both the quantity and character of these exchange flows must be determined. In this paper, data on gravity-driven exchange rates through open doors obtained from field experiments at the Alberta Home Heating Research Facility are compared with laboratory model simulations and theoretical predictions.

Effects on ventilation behaviour of inhabitants in residential buildings.

The effects on ventilation behaviour of inhabitants in residential buildings have been investigated as a part within several years' German R and Dprogramme. The investigations have shown that the ventilation behaviour seems to be dominated by traditional behaviour patterns, e.g. ventilating bedrooms, and subjective impressions. There is only a modest correlation between window opening and needs for indoor air quality and energy conservation. Up to nowmost of the inhabitants do not assess correctly their own window opening behaviour.

Occupant influence on energy consumption in single-family dwellings.

The objective of this study is to provide an explanatory model for total energy consumption in electrically heated single-family dwellings, based on publicly available socio-economic records in Sweden. An earlier study based on 3,200 houses, divided into 93 groups of similar design, has shown that energy consumption for one house may be twice that of another house in the same area, built to an identical design. The problem is: how much of this scatter depends on occupancy behaviour? The present study is based on 78 similar houses, electrically heated, built as one group in 1969.