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natural ventilation

Thermal performance analysis of a solar chimney, based on the experimental study of the main driving variables in a physical prototype

This work presents the thermal behavior of a stand-alone experimental solar chimney during one year. The dimensions of the solar chimney are 5.60 m high, 1.0 m width, and 0.52 m depth. The absorber plate is made of a common reinforced concrete wall of 4.5 m high, 1.0 m width and 0.15 m depth. This system was designed and constructed in 2003, and it is located in the “Laboratorio de Ensayos Energéticos para Componentes de la Edificación (LECE)” at the “Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA)” in Spain.

Model Predictive Control (MPC) of hybrid ventilation systems in office buildings with dynamic glass facades

An advanced heat and electricity saving strategy for the regulation of hybrid ventilation systems with automatic night cooling (ventilative cooling), mechanical compressor cooling, natural ventilation and exterior solar shading by the inclusion of MPC (Model Predictive Control) has been developed in this project. The focus is on the optimization of the total energy cost (cost function) as compared to indoor climate requirements and variations in the outdoor climate. During the test period, the test persons could override the automatic control of the natural ventilation and solar shading.

Impact of natural ventilation in energy demand and thermal comfort of residential buildings in Catalonia

The most representative typology of residential buildings of Catalonia has been simulated in TRNSYS to evaluate the impact of both infiltration and natural ventilation. The typology is a block of apartments constructed during 1950-1980. 

Wind-induced pressure coefficients on buildings dedicated to air change rate assessment with CFD tool in complex urban areas

The paper presents a numerical methodology to assess the natural ventilation. UrbaWind is an automatic computational fluid dynamics code. It was developed to model the wind in urban environments. The turbulence modelling, namely the dependence of turbulence length on the distance from wall, and the model constants were calibrated in order to reproduce with good agreements flow separation around buildings walls and pressure coefficient field on façades. Numerical results match well with the experiments: separation patterns and pressure field on walls in dense urban areas.

Stack driven ventilative cooling for schools in mild climates: analysis of two case studies

This paper presents two case studies of stack driven ventilative cooling systems implemented in kindergarten schools located in the mild Subtropical-Mediterranean climate of Lisbon, Portugal. Both systems rely on stack driven natural ventilation supplemented by a larger, single-sided ventilation opening to be used in the warmer months. In both systems air enters the rooms at a low level, directly in front of the heating passive convector systems, and is exhausted in the back of the room, through a chimney.

Air change rate measurements using indoor/outdoor ratio of PM2.5

According to past researches, most people spend 80%-90% of their time indoors. The ventilation is very important to people’s health and the comfortable surroundings around us. From the viewpoint of energy saving, mechanical ventilation will consume a large amount of additional energy. So variety of ways measuring natural ventilation is worth considering. In fact, in real life, many people tend to have their windows shut rather than open, and the reasons are complex.

Experimental Performance and Numerical Simulation of a Thai Modern Façade Wall

In this paper, the numerical and experimental performance of a new Thai Modern Façade (TMF) are investigated. Two configurations were considered namely, the Thai Modern Façade wall (TMF) and the Thai modern façade wall with fin (TMF-WF). The coupled governing equations as well as boundary conditions are solved using the finite element method (FEM) via COMSOLTM Multiphysics. Temperature profiles and flow field of the TMF and TMF-WF are reported and discussed.

Semi-Empirical Models for Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation - A Literature Study

A literature study is presented on the theories and models dealing with buoyancy-driven ventilation in rooms. The models are categorised into four types according to how the physical process is conceived: column model, fan model, neutral plane model and pressure model. These models are analysed and compared with a reference model. Discrepancies and differences are shown, and the deviations are discussed. It is concluded that a reliable buoyancy model based solely on the fundamental flow equations is desirable.

Effects of Vent Configuration and Span Number on Greenhouse Microclimate under Summer Conditions in Eastern China

The effects of vent configuration and span number on the microclimate in multi-span greenhouses were investigated. A three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed based on an 11-span plastic greenhouse cultivated with 0.2 m-high lettuces. The model was verified with the temperature profile measured in the greenhouse. Then, it was used to explore the effects of vent configuration and span number on greenhouse climate. Simulations show that different vent configurations result in very different microclimate fields.

Effect of Opening the Sash of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window on Wind Pressure Coefficients

This paper describes the effect of outward opening the sash of a window on local and overall wind pressures. Wind tunnel experiments were used for the purpose of evaluation. A centre-pivot roof window on a pitched roof in a modelled scaled building was used in the analysis of wind pressures. The wind pressures were defined in terms of wind pressure coefficients. Traditionally, wind pressure coefficients are extracted from the analysis of a sealed plane surface. These wind pressure coefficients are used to estimate the natural ventilation rate through windows/openings due to wind effect.

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