Archetypes of public secondary schools in Mediterranean climate. Indoor air quality and comfort field studies

Climate change is a growing global concern and building stock, in particular, is responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases, largely due to its poor energy efficiency. This problem is especially serious in educational buildings, where it is necessary to encourage energy efficient retrofitting under the parameters of nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB), an objective which in Europe has been set for 2050. This is expected to produce economic, energy saving, hygrothermal comfort and health-safety benefits.

Relationship Between IAQ And Indoor Temperatures Of Different Dwellings In A Temperate Climate During A Pandemic Summer

This paper investigates the relationship between indoor air quality (IAQ) and overheating in a temperate climate in Spain (Cfb attending to Koppen-Ggeiger classification), in dwellings located in residential buildings and without cooling systems.

Climate correlation model to identify thermal comfort and IAQ strategies in naturally ventilated residential buildings

Occupants in residential buildings usually control natural ventilation through window openings. However, few studies have developed simple rules based on the outdoor weather forecast that can inform the occupants to predict the indoor condition by applying natural ventilation for thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ). This paper describes a model based on indoor/outdoor correlations, derived through simulations using EnergyPlus and CONTAM, to help occupants maintain internal environmental quality manually or through simple controls.

Assessing natural ventilation strategies to improve thermal resilience to extreme temperatures of the residential buildings in Barcelona

In future years the frequency, duration and magnitude of extreme heat events, such as heat waves, is expected to increase due to climate change. The population is exposed to higher thermal discomfort and risk at home and, at the same time, high external temperatures make it more difficult to cool their household through natural ventilation.

In order to propose adaptive measures, research should first assess the thermal resilience of the existing residential buildings when exposed to prolonged heat stress. Poorly insulated and non-equipped buildings typical of Southern

Validation of EnergyPlus thermal simulation of a double skin naturally and mechanically ventilated test cell

This paper presents a thermal simulation validation study of the typical precision that a trained thermal simulation engineer can expect to obtain for the simulation of a room connected to a naturally ventilated double skin facade. The open source building thermal simulation tool EnergyPlus is used to predict air and surface temperatures in a free running weather exposed test cell.

Comparison of measured and simulated performance of natural displacement ventilation systems for classrooms

Children spend the majority of their weekdays in classrooms that often have low indoor air quality and limited financial resources for the initial and running costs of mechanical ventilation systems. Designing effective natural ventilation (NV) systems in schools is difficult due to the intense use of the classroom spaces and the dependence of NV on building geometry and outdoor conditions. Building thermal and airflow simulation tools are fundamental to predict NV system performance in the design phase.

Validation of numerical simulation tools for wind-driven natural ventilation design

This paper presents a validation of airflow network (AFN) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for a naturally ventilated office building using wind tunnel measurements as the reference for external pressure coefficients and effective airflow rate prediction. The CFD simulation model is also used to study the effect of partially open windows on the effective flow rate. This study also includes a design exercise for a naturally ventilated office building that analyses the differences in predicted average window open area for a typical weather year.

Impact of aperture separation on wind-driven single-sided natural ventilation

This paper presents a study of the impact of horizontal aperture separation in single-sided ventilation flows with two apertures (SS2). The study is based on wind tunnel measurements and dimensional analysis. The results show that the SS2 ventilation flow rate, scaled with incoming wind velocity and aperture area, depends on the incoming wind angle relative to the aperture façade, θ, and on the aperture separation scaled by building width, s′. For most wind angles, the ventilation flow increases as the square-root of s′.