The results of a prediction method for calculating ventilation rates in a detached house are compared with experimental measurements described in aprevious paper. The method is capable of giving good agreement for a wide range of ventilation conditions. The need is demonstrated for further work in two important areas - the spatial distribution of background areas and the effect of turbulence.
A combination of a wind-tunnel investigation and a mathematical simulation technique conducted on models of two-storey parking garage situated beneath alarge block of buildings (consisting of houses, shopping centre and offices) shows that wind penetrating the partly open garage facades can provide sufficient ventilation. Studies the effects on ventilation of varying the open area of the facades and of fitting openings in the garage roofs. Measures the effect of such ventilation means on air quality close to buildings.
Gives a brief survey of aspects of research into air infiltration. Discusses methods of measurement of ventilation rates and of building leakiness, covering the infrasonic and pressurisation methods of leakage testing, and thermography and tracer gas methods of measuring ventilation rates. Describes the available techniques for predicting leakiness and infiltration rates, and discusses their ease of application and accuracy. Concludes that the achievements of research to date are sound methods of measuring leakiness and infiltration rates.
TNO Research Institute for Environmental Hygiene have developed a mathematical model (based on an electrical analogue model) for deciding on the best ventilation system (natural v. mechanical) for a building while it is still atthe design stage. This model has been applied to an auction complex situated at Bleiwijk to deduce the best ventilation system for the building. Conclusions are that a natural ventilation system can be realized by placing ventilating devices exclusively in the roof.
Investigations in Denmark show that there are as many as 75 different compounds in indoor air in tight houses including toluene, xylene, and radon. The dust in homes contains a large number of allergically active ingredients, the most important being the dust mite, which occurs in bed clothes.< States that good air quality is therefore difficult to maintain with natural ventilation in new tight houses. If the hygienic demands of this decade increase the need for ventilation, mechanical ventilation seems to stand a good chance.
Characteristics of the ventilation in poultry buildings have been studied at the Hungarian Institute for Building Science. The pressure loss of the cross-building ventilation flow is determined for a section of a typical building and for two typical air inlet-outlet layouts. On the basis of velocity measurements the local hourly air change rates were determined in the cages and compared to the general air change rate in the building.
In most office buildings, the continuous renewal of air cannot be guaranteed by means of ventilation through windows during any optional time. It is known (in the case of radiators and window ventilation) that when a window is open the ventilating heat cannot be recovered and other heat losses will occur.< The paper proves that the heating of a building by air is a greater energy saver then the conventional solution through static heating and window ventilation.
Sponsored by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, a consulting firm performed an investigation of the possible energy savings in industrial halls outside working hours. The ventilation should be closed during shut-down periods, and air change through natural draught cut down to a minimum. The ventilation by leakage of an industrial building may be estimated at 0.1-0.5 air changes per hour, therefore the tightness of the constructions is imperative. The decrease of the temperature in industrial halls during non-working hours is imperative.