In most office buildings, the continuous renewal of air cannot be guaranteed by means of ventilation through windows during any optional time. It is known (in the case of radiators and window ventilation) that when a window is open the ventilating heat cannot be recovered and other heat losses will occur.< The paper proves that the heating of a building by air is a greater energy saver then the conventional solution through static heating and window ventilation.
Sponsored by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, a consulting firm performed an investigation of the possible energy savings in industrial halls outside working hours. The ventilation should be closed during shut-down periods, and air change through natural draught cut down to a minimum. The ventilation by leakage of an industrial building may be estimated at 0.1-0.5 air changes per hour, therefore the tightness of the constructions is imperative. The decrease of the temperature in industrial halls during non-working hours is imperative.
The use of sealants and gaskets are often recommended as an effective energy saving measure. However, the energy saved depends on the function of building and ventilation as a total system. This paper describes the effect of sealing the outer walls in residential buildings with natural and exhaust ventilation respectively. With natural ventilation, making the walls twice as tight reduces the air exchange by half, whereas with exhaust ventilation the reduction in air exchange is very small.
Briefly reviews ventilation requirements, types of ventilation , driving mechanisms for natural ventilation and infiltration, natural ventilation, infiltration and air leakage, air leakage sources, empirical models and infiltration measurement.
Makes general suggestions for future buildings and their ventilation methods with the aim of creating improvements to avoid the faulty design of the 1960's with their high energy consumption. Considers the characteristics of natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation with respect to ventilation heat loss. Recommends the use of `ventilation on demand' for bathrooms, w.c.'s and kitchens using individual extract ventilation units for each room.
Reports on an investigation concerning ventilation and energy conservation in dwellings, which was financed by the EEC and the Dutch Ministry for Housing and Public Works. Concludes that:< 1. In single family houses air flow through cracks and joints causes more ventilation then is required.< 2. Flats with more airtight construction provide better control of ventilation.< 3. The amount of wind protection plays a part as important as airtightness.< 4.
In many buildings the incoming ventilation air causes recirculating airflow. Diagrams show typical examples. The incoming air stream enters below the ceiling level and carries air from the building with it causing air movement greater than th
Lists the factors in a building (condensation, comfort, heat loss etc) which are affected by ventilation, mechanical or natural. Treats the driving forces of air exchange in buildings. Describes the four basic flow phenomena involved in air e