Investigates a rational method of utilizing recent improvements in wind tunnel techniques and meteorological data, to estimate potential wind-generated air flow through housing in hot humid climates. The method uses mean pressure differences obtained from solid wind tunnel models together with appropriate discharge coefficients for rectangular openings. Changes in pressure distributions due to typical openings through models indicated that the use of pressure data from solid models results in errors similar to those associated with the local wind data.
The `Swedish Attic' has the ceiling to the upper floor self-supporting with a rafter roof supported by posts which rest on the upper ceiling. The system is commonly used in one and a half storey houses in which the upper floor is restricted to the area enclosed by the posts.< This study has been performed at the Royal College of Technology in Stockholm using a climate-simulator. It shows that the attic must be ventilated with continuous slots at the eaves and along the ridge.
By observing animal housing in severely cold conditions it was realised that an airtight building with mechanical ventilation did not provide the optimum solution, but better results were obtained from porous buildings. Reports aninvestigation made on a large model building simulating the humidity and temperature conditions in animal housing during winter. The model had a porous ceiling of flax straw.
A fair comparison of ventilation systems is almost an impossible achievement. Even an economic comparison causes difficulties; the different systems render different room air qualities which cannot be counted in money.
Calculations show that natural ventilation exploiting wind and specific gravity differences may reduce the need for ventilation heat. This is not done as usual by ventilation through open doors and windows but through fine porous air-permeable outside walls. The optimum thickness of the heat insulation layer is defined, giving maximum saving of total heating and ventilation energy.
Briefly reviews factors to be taken into account in considering natural ventilation in commercial and industrial buildings. These factors include the location of the building, surrounding buildings, activity within the building and results required of the installation. Notes some of the problems andpossible advantages of combining natural and fan powered systems.
Assesses the role of natural ventilation in modern hospitals. Considers optimum standards of air change rates for winter and summer conditions and reviews factors within the hospital context that are likely to affect the achievement of natural ventilation. Notes an air change rate of 1.5/hr. is usually assumed for heat loss calculation. Finds cross ventilation is unlikely to be achieved and designs should be based on single sided ventilation. Reports tracer gas measurements of natural ventilation in Southland Hospital, Shoreham by Sea.
The requirement for better methods of predicting infiltration and natural ventilation rates has been reinforced by the incentive to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Natural ventilation is basically dependent on the effects of wind and temperature difference and on the resistance to airflow through the building. Discusses in detail these factors and highlights areas requiring further study. Briefly illustrates energy savings available by controlling natural ventilation.
Presents code of practice which supersedes CP3:chapter 1(c):1950. Deals with ventilation of buildings for human occupation. Outlines main reasons for provision of ventilation and gives recommended quantitative air flowrates. Shows that these form the basis for air supply recommendations for different types of buildings, and rooms characterised by usage. Gives basis for choice between natural and mechanical ventilation. Provides guidance on design of natural ventilation systems. chapter headings are: General, General principles of ventilation, natural ventilation, appendices.