The use of sealants and gaskets are often recommended as an effective energy saving measure. However, the energy saved depends on the function of building and ventilation as a total system. This paper describes the effect of sealing the outer walls in residential buildings with natural and exhaust ventilation respectively. With natural ventilation, making the walls twice as tight reduces the air exchange by half, whereas with exhaust ventilation the reduction in air exchange is very small.
Briefly reviews ventilation requirements, types of ventilation , driving mechanisms for natural ventilation and infiltration, natural ventilation, infiltration and air leakage, air leakage sources, empirical models and infiltration measurement.
Makes general suggestions for future buildings and their ventilation methods with the aim of creating improvements to avoid the faulty design of the 1960's with their high energy consumption. Considers the characteristics of natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation with respect to ventilation heat loss. Recommends the use of `ventilation on demand' for bathrooms, w.c.'s and kitchens using individual extract ventilation units for each room.
Reports on an investigation concerning ventilation and energy conservation in dwellings, which was financed by the EEC and the Dutch Ministry for Housing and Public Works. Concludes that:< 1. In single family houses air flow through cracks and joints causes more ventilation then is required.< 2. Flats with more airtight construction provide better control of ventilation.< 3. The amount of wind protection plays a part as important as airtightness.< 4.
In many buildings the incoming ventilation air causes recirculating airflow. Diagrams show typical examples. The incoming air stream enters below the ceiling level and carries air from the building with it causing air movement greater than th
Lists the factors in a building (condensation, comfort, heat loss etc) which are affected by ventilation, mechanical or natural. Treats the driving forces of air exchange in buildings. Describes the four basic flow phenomena involved in air e
Investigates a rational method of utilizing recent improvements in wind tunnel techniques and meteorological data, to estimate potential wind-generated air flow through housing in hot humid climates. The method uses mean pressure differences obtained from solid wind tunnel models together with appropriate discharge coefficients for rectangular openings. Changes in pressure distributions due to typical openings through models indicated that the use of pressure data from solid models results in errors similar to those associated with the local wind data.
The `Swedish Attic' has the ceiling to the upper floor self-supporting with a rafter roof supported by posts which rest on the upper ceiling. The system is commonly used in one and a half storey houses in which the upper floor is restricted to the area enclosed by the posts.< This study has been performed at the Royal College of Technology in Stockholm using a climate-simulator. It shows that the attic must be ventilated with continuous slots at the eaves and along the ridge.