A computer model for controlling natural ventilation.

A control program for a natural ventilation system for agricultural buildings is described which calculates a required ventilation rate, then adjusts vent openings to achieve this ventilation rate with equally distributed flows. 

Ventilation, the balance between energy and well-being.

A survey is given of the sitution in The Netherlands with regard to ventilation and infiltration. Starting from a point of generally very leaky and hardly insulated buildings now the necessity is felt on the one side to make standards for the airtightness to prevent energy wastes by too high infiltration rates and on the other hand to define minimum ventilation rates to secure safe and hygienic conditions in well insulated and airtight buildings. This minimum ventilation rate is based on contaminants, caused by the occupants themselves, the so-called unavoidable sources.

Ventilation requirements for airtight homes. A research report.

As airtight houses become more popular across Canada, reduced ventilation rates may lead to poor air quality and high humidity problems in these dwellings. This paper reviews the needs for ventilation, ventilation methods and systems, and current codes and standards, particularly with respect to airtight and energy efficient houses. Current research in Canada is reviewed and considerations for a new ventilation standard are discussed.

Multiple cell air movement measurements.

The multiple tracer gas technique developed at UMIST has been applied to the measurement of roof-space ventilation rates and house to roof-space air movement, for various types and combinations of roof-space ventilation. It has been shown that ridge tile ventilators, whilst increasing roofspace ventilation rates at low wind speeds, also significantly increase house to roof-space airflows over the whole range of wind speeds. This has implications not only in terms of energy wastage, but, more significantly , in terms of increased moisture rates to the roof-space.

Effect of unvented combustion appliances on air exchange among indoor spaces.

The effects of operating unvented appl i ances and opening windows on indoor pollutant levels and air exchange rates are being studied under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute. The study is being conducted i n an instrumented, well-characterized bilevel house located near Washington, D.C. Air leakage due to window openings is characterized by pressurization measurements and the air exchange increment is characterized through tracer gas measurements. Two unvented space heaters, one radiant and the other convective, are operated singly and in combination with a gas cooking range.

Monitoring of ventilation and humidity in crawl spaces of dwellings.

Several physical phenomena which may contribute to moisture migration from the crawl space to the living spaces in houses are outlined. Results of two projects to monitor moisture migration are presented.

Indoor air quality and air exchange in bedrooms.

Natural ventilation rates in bedrooms at night have been measured in retrofitted apartments. The measurements indicate clearly that air quality in bedrooms may be unacceptable in dwellings with an energy-efficient minimal ventilation rate. The air supply rates may be as low as 1 l/s/person in themedian case of bedroom size, ventilation rate and two occupants. The carbon dioxide concentration will reach a level of 4000-4500 ppm in the morning depending on the length of sleeping time in a closed room.

Design for ventilation.

Ventilation can be advantageous as opposed to adventitious and, with careful building design, can eliminate the need for air conditioning in summer. This paper discusses the general principles of design for ventilation, inparticular the removal of excess heat, and presents two examples of buildings designed to eliminate air conditioning. One is a deep plan office block, the other an exhibition hall. In both cases ventilation models featured strongly in the design.

A passive ventilation system under trial in UK homes.

A passive ventilation system has been installed in four new houses: it comprises simple ducts which lead up from the kitchen and bathroom to outside near the house ridge and utilise the wind and the temperature difference between inside and outside (the stack effect) as driving forces. During occupation the system provided a consistent background ventilation rate: the flows dropped only when it was warm and calm outside (when other ventilation measures might be taken by the occupier); when it was very cold and windy outside the system did not over extract but appeared to self-throttle.