People and indoor air. Mensch und Raumluft.

Compares the guidelines for indoor air quality and minimum ventilation rates outlined in the DIN 1946 and ASHRAE standards. Discusses air quality-controlled ventilation. Outlines the principles and standards governing both natural ventilation and controlled ventilation with heat recovery in residential buildings.

Thermal analysis of naturally ventilated buildings.

A simplified electric analogue method to analyse the thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings is presented. One of the main features of the method is that empirical constants in some equations account for typical rates of natural ventilation in conventional buildings. Another feature is that a very high degree of lumping is attained by using a special calculation procedure to estimate effective capacity values of building elements. The method is therefore extremely easy to use. Predictions are compared with measurements. The comparison is acceptable for design purposes.

Warning - indoor air pollution can seriously damage your health.

Indoor air pollution is defined, and some of the causes are listed, all of which can be harmful to health. The problem is accentuated by recent insulation measures aimed at economising on energy costs, which lead to a dramatic reduction in natu

Ventilation of residential buildings. Beluftung von wohngebauden.

Investigates the effects of five different ventilation strategies on the annual energy consumption for heating and warm water of residential (family) homes. The strategies are: (1) natural ventilation, (2) mechanical ventilation and three forms of exhaust plants. Uses weather data from Portland, Oregon and Great Falls, Montana as examples of very different climatic conditions and heating/cooling requirements. The University of Wisconsin TRNSYS program was used for numerical simulation.

Trickle ventilators in low energy houses.

Describes a demonstration project to show that, in well sealed houses, trickle ventilators can provide an opening large enough to reduce condensation and odour problems, but small enough to avoid any significant increase in energy use.

Indoor air pollution and ventilation standards

Discusses ventilation requirements to achieve acceptable air quality. In many cases, this would lead to unacceptable energy costs, so instead recommends setting standards for heat-exchanger systems, for filters that can control particulates, hydrocarbons and radon gas, and for details such as flow direction and system maintenance. Also standards for 'pollustat' systems should be encouraged by which four surrogate pollutant levels would be kept below suggested threshold levels in all conditions of building use and occupancy.

Energy conservation measures by natural and mechanical ventilation systems.

The advantages and disadvantages of various ventilation systems have been assessed in Germany over the past four years. The programme covered research in unoccupied test rooms as well as in occupied buildings. Results are presented, and the possibilities and limits for energy saving while meeting comfort requirements are discussed.

Natural ventilation - conditions and means for its improvement in existing buildings.

In new buildings, the requirements for indoor air quality and energy efficiency cannot be met with natural ventilation. In renovations of existing buildings it is, however, often difficult or uneconomic to install a mechanical system. What is often forgotten is that the conditions for natural ventilation will have changed, even if no alterations are made to the ventilation system.

Ventilation in existing buildings. Part Two: An approach to natural-like mechanical ventilation of existing buildings.

Describes a new ventilation strategy for retrofitted buildings. The system consists of two units including heat recovery, fan, filter, etc, which are installed in the window openings. They are operated in opposite directions which are periodically reversed. When desired, the unit is stopped and used as an airing panel. In laboratory tests the specified values were achieved. The heat recovery proved so efficient that no air heating was needed even at the lowest temperatures. Some noise and freezing problems were reported.

Ventilation in existing buildings. Part One. Comparative studies of various ventilation systems in old renovated buildings.

Some of the problems for designing ventilation systems for retrofitted buildings are presented. Measurements were taken in two public buildings in Helsinki with three ventilation systems of different types. In these two buildings only a balanced mechanical ventilation system seemed to fulfill therequirements for a satisfactory and healthy indoor environment.