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Ventilative Cooling Potential in Low-Energy Dwellings –The HoTT Case Study

Research indicates that low-energy dwellings are more sensitive to overheating than regular dwellings. In this research the ventilative cooling potential of low-energy dwellings is considered. A low-energy dwelling based on the Active House concept, “House of Tomorrow Today” (HoTT), has been investigated as representative for low-energy dwellings in general. A computational model of the house was created with the software TRNSYS (in combination with CONTAM) and this model has been calibrated with actual (intervention) measurements in the HoTT.

Airtightness and non-uniformity of ventilation rates in a naturally ventilated building with trickle vents

Infiltration is an uncontrolled contribution to ventilation in a building and can contribute significantly to the total ventilation rate, particularly in older, leaky, dwellings which can rely on infiltration to provide adequate indoor air quality. However, as explored in this paper, using a whole house airtightness metric to characterise ventilation rates can fail to identify low ventilation rates in specific rooms. 

Designing a model-scale experiment to evaluate the impact of steady wind on building air leakage measurements

Since the 1970s, many authors have discussed the impact of poor airtightness on building energy use, indoor air quality, building damage, or noise transmission. Nowadays, because poor airtightness affects significantly the energy performance of buildings, and even more significantly with low-energy targets, many countries include requirements for building airtightness in their national regulations or energy-efficiency programs. Building pressurization tests are increasingly used for compliance checks to energy performance requirements and may result in severe penalties.

Reliability of ductwork airtightness measurement: impact of pressure drop and leakage repartition on the test result

Building airtightness requirements are becoming more and more common in Europe (Leprince, Carrié, & Kapsalaki, 2017). However, airtight buildings require an efficient ventilation system to ensure good indoor air quality. In France, the inspection of ventilation system (Jobert, 2012) has revealed many noncompliance. They are mainly due to bad conception, poor implementation, and lack of maintenance. This often leads to reduced ventilation flowrates and poor indoor air quality. Leaky ductwork is one of the reasons for this noncompliance.

Impact of construction stages on Indoor Air Quality

Since the turn of the century, alarming data produced by the Indoor Air Quality Observatory (OQAI) have led to changes in French legislation, including, most notably, the introduction of compulsory labelling for construction products (decree no. 2011-321 of 23 March 2011).

Diagnostic barriers to using PM2.5 concentrations as metrics of indoor air quality

Particulate matter with a diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) has been shown to be present in many buildings at concentrations that are harmful to human health. Accordingly, they should be used as metrics of indoor air quality (IAQ) and included in standards or norms. This paper uses measurements of PM2.5 concentrations made in three different environments using three different devices to show that there are barriers that must be before they can be considered viable diagnostics. Optical particle counters (OPCs) are a common device used to measure temporal changes in PM2.5 concentration.

Wind speed in building airtightness test protocols: a review

Since the 1970s, many authors have discussed the impact of poor airtightness on building energy use, indoor air quality, building damage, or noise transmission (Carrié and Rosenthal, 2008) (Tamura, 1975) (Sherman and Chan, 2006) (Orr and Figley, 1980). Nowadays, because poor airtightness affects significantly the energy performance of buildings, and even more significantly with low-energy targets, many countries include requirements for building airtightness in their national regulations or energy-efficiency programs.

On the contribution of steady wind to uncertainties in building pressurisation tests

This paper analyses the contribution of a steady wind to the uncertainties in building pressurisation tests, using the approach developed in another paper (Carrié and Leprince, 2016). The uncertainty due to wind is compared to the uncertainties due to other sources of uncertainty (bias, precision and deviation of flow exponent).
The main results of this study are:

The effect of refurbishment and trickle vents on airtightness: the case of a 1930s semi-detached house

As UK homes are insulated and draught proofed in an attempt to reduce wintertime heating demand they become more airtight. Any reduction in infiltration could have a detrimental effect on indoor air quality. Controllable background ventilation provided by trickle vents is one method of maintaining indoor air quality.

On the design and testing of Airtightness Modifier dedicated to the TIPEE IEQ House

This paper aims to present the elaboration of a device able to modify the airtightness of a test House. This project has been conducted with three Master student groups in the framework of their research projects from 2015 to 2017. The TIPEE IEQ test House, comprising of two floors and eight rooms, is dedicated to the study of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), thermal comfort and energy consumption. Its envelope has been designed to reach an airtightness target slightly lower than the French Energy Efficiency Standard RT2012 requirement for dwellings i.e.

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