An office environment - problems and improvements

The employees in a large office in Trondheim were complaining about headache, tiredness, sickness, allergic reactions in eye and nose, dry skin, respiratory diseases etc., and as usual they believed that their inconvenience was due tothe ventilating system. However, preliminary investigations did not verify this assumption, although it was evident that the heating and ventilating system was part of the problems. Measures included reduction of room temperature, antistatic treatment of carpets, and replacement of noisy ceiling diffusers.

Humidity problems in buildings Problemes d'humidite dans les batiments

Treats the causes of deterioration in buildings, thermal bridges, the indoor climate, data for the design and execution of buildings and living conditions in rooms. Section headings are The formation of moulds, Humidity in buildings, The temperature factor, tau, as a criterion of the thermal quality of thestructural elements, Conditions of occupation of buildings, Thermal bridges, Natural ventilation of buildings, Conclusions, Advice.

Design of inlets and outlets and their regulation in conjunction with natural ventilation in live stock buildings

A livestock building for 30 cows in loose housing was constructed in 1982. In the cow stable natural ventilation is provided through openings along the eaves. New types of inlets and outllets have been designed for natural ventilation systems. The regulation system for the air flow rate is a modified P-type regulator. Using timesharing of the regulation function, the inlet areas can be regulated in groups by means of four different temperature sensors in the building.

Indoor climate Inomhusklimat

Describes expectations people have of indoor climate. Notes that the quality of indoor climate has often taken second place to fashionable architectural and material considerations. Refers to concern for improved environment and awareness of formaldehyde, radon and other pollutants and the need for correct ventilation to achieve derived air quality. Proves guidelines for air quality and the thermal indoor climate in both housing and working premises.

Guiding principles concerning design of experiments, instrumentation and measuring techniques.

The report aims to provide the basis for the design and set up of experiments for the evaluation of the effects of energy conservation measures in residential buildings. The first part deals with general planning of the experiment, basic principles of building physics, thermal comfort and energy related behaviour of occupants. The second part decribes the design of the experiment, and the third part is devoted to measurement techniques, data acquisition and installation rules in the different fields of building physics and heating systems.

Draft Standard for ventilation systems. Forslag til NKB-norm for ventilasjonsanlegg.

Provides basis for planning and installing plant for maintaining indoor climate based on previous draft which is based on earlier Danish Standard. Refers to several salient design criteria including leakage factors at given test pressure, maintenance of climate parameters, air quality, anticipated energy consumption. Gives example table for requirements of building in terms of m2/person depending on application. States example tolerances of air flows.

Indoor climate in low-ventilated day care institutions.

Carries out measurements of indoor atmospheric environment in a day nursery and a kindergarten in Denmark, where natural air infiltration supplies the room with only 1-2 m3 fresh air per person and hour under the prescribed occupancy. Duplicates situation under controlled conditions in a climate chamber. Results indicate unacceptably high concentrations of carbon-dioxide, and show the need for more elaborate building design in airtight buildings.

Air infiltration problems in ventilation systems.

Presents the latest results of air infiltration research in Finland. The aim is to increase the knowledge of the influences of air infiltration on energy consumption, ventilation and indoor climate. Briefly describes the principles of a calculation model for predicting the interconnection between airtightness and air change rate. Describes improvement of air tightness in Finnish buildings, with special attention to construction details. Discusses possibilities of draughtless and controlled fresh air intake through the building envelope.

Proposed nordic standard for ventilation and thermal comfort.

Presents a proposal for an Indoor Climate Standard, to be included in the building codes of the nordic countries. The standard comprises two parts: 1) air quality and ventilation, 2) thermal environment. The paper presents and discusses the main features of the two parts of the standard. Mechanical ventilation is required in all buildings including dwellings at a minimum outdoor air change of 0.5/h. Limits for operative temperature and for thermal non-uniformity are given for winter and summer conditions.

Indoor climate problems in Danish dwellings . Complaints and diseases referred to the type and materials of dwellings and the living habits.

Reports survey of indoor climate problems in dwellings. Questionnaires were distributed to 424 families who had complained of indoor climate problems and 240 replies were received. The questionnaires dealt with complaints relating to the dwellings and the age, profession, health and smoking habits of theoccupants. The dwellings are described by type, age, material of outer and interior walls, ceiling and floor. There are questions on ventilating habits, cleaning habits and occupants' views on dust, noise, odour, temperature, humidity and draughts.