ECA 11: Guidelines for ventilation requirements in buildings.

These Guidelines recommend the ventilation required to obtain a desired indoor air quality in a space. The first step is to decide the air quality aimed for in the ventilated space. A certain air quality is prescribed to avoid adverse health effects while a decision is required on the level of perceived air quality aimed for in the ventilated space. Three different comfort levels are suggested. The next step is to determine the pollution load on the air caused by pollution sources in the space.

Application of a Thermal Manikin to Evaluate Heat Loss Rates from People caused by Variations in Air Velocity and Air Temperature

Heat loss monitoring from a thermal manikin was undertaken representing an occupant in a classroom during a lesson period of 80 minutes in which the room temperature was increased from 21 to 24C for various airflow velocity configurations. A group of subjects was exposed to various conditions of temperature and airflow rate so that the impact of these variations on their surface/skin temperature could be determined. It was found that skin temperature remained stable and close to 34C for all conditions of exposure.

Human response to personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation

For that study, 60 person have been tested to compare their response to personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation. The benefits presented in human response were obtained with the personalized ventilation system. The results could be improved with a further development of ventilation effectiveness.

Correlation between temperature satisfaction and unsolicited complaint rates in commercial buildings

In this paper the relation between temperature satisfaction ratings and unsolicited complaint rates recorded in a maintenance database is analyzed. That relationship validates a new method of assessing the economic cost of thermal discomfort in commercial buildings.

New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity at moderate energy expenditure

The international center for indoor environment and energy, at the Technical University of Denmark has at its disposal 3 old and 9 new spaces for studying indoor environments and their incidence on human comfort, health, productivity at moderate energy demands. This paper describes those climate chambers, new laboratory and offices used for field experiments.

Thermal comfort for naturally ventilated houses in Indonesia

This paper presents an extensive field survey conducted in residential naturally ventilated buildings in Indonesia. The data gathered has been analyzed and revealed that the Predicted Mean Vote equation predicted a warmer thermal perception compared to what people really felt. Under hot and humid tropical climate, people in free-running buildings had a preference for cooler environment and for higher wind speed.

Thermal Comfort of Task Unit with Isothermal Air Flow Fan and Radiant Panel

This study describes an experiment on a Task Unit and reports the results. The Task Unit coolsthe upper half of the body by isothermal air flow and warms the lower half of the body by a radiant panel. Tests were designed to compare heat removal by moving air after identifying the metabolic rate and how the thermal sensation and comfort sensation improve during the summer season. As a result, when the room temperature rises, the activity ratio of the Task Unit rises, too.

Improved comfort resolves "sick building" syndrome

In this paper the author relates his experiment : while interviewing unhappy building occupants he realized that it was necessary to step back from the specific complaints and begin with the basics of proper ventilation, moisture control, temperature control before embarking on costly scientific investigations to solve the problem.

Comfort and Productivity When People Moved from Hot and Humid Condition to Thermally Neutral Condition with Different Humidities

In order to clarify the effects of humidity on subjective comfort and productivity under transient conditions in summer, subjective experiments were conducted. Subjects were exposed to 30C/70%RH for 15 minutes in Chamber 1. Then they moved to Chamber 2, in which 4 different conditions were set, and stayed for 180 minutes. For all 4 conditions, SET* was kept constant at 25.2C. Skin wettedness on left chest and skin moisture on left forearm decreased more at low relative humidity. No significant difference in subjective task performances was found among all conditions.

A Case Study of Quantitative Energy Efficiency of Personalized Ventilation in the Tropics

This paper provides information of energy efficiency potential of Personalised Ventilation (PV) systems used in conjunction with a secondary Mixing Volume (MV) air-conditioning system in the tropics. The energy consumption and the acceptability of PV at selected combinations of indoor ambient temperatures of 26 C and PV air supply temperatures of 20 or 23 C, is compared with that of sole mixing ventilation in which the indoor air temperature was controlled at 23 C.