Energy conservation in an old 3-story apartment complex.

Reports study of the potential for energy saving in an old low-rise, 50 unit apartment building. Energy use and heat balance of the building are calculated including heat loss through conduction and air infiltration. Also gives estimate of infiltration rate from a room found using first water vapour thensulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. Suggests various strategies for energy conservation which would result in a 30% saving in fuel. Methods are applicable to a wider class of old buildings

Analysis by measurement of energy consumption in full scale model houses

Discusses measurement of energy consumption and the large number of factors to be studied. Presents detailed measurements for two blocks of flats in Sweden taken partly during 1971/72 and partly during the oil crisis of 1973/74. In one of the two projects major savings were achieved by adjusting the heating system, reducing the room temperature and reducing the mechanical ventilation. About half of the savings made in the energy used for heating and ventilation (40%) resulted from reduced airing of rooms.

Excessive infiltration and ventilation air.

Suggests energy usage can be reduced by lowering the quantity of ventilation air. Reviews ASHRAE standards for minimum ventilation and air quality. Suggests changes in air conditioning design and the use of air purification equipment. Recommends further research.

Ventilation, health and energy consumption: a status report.

U.S. ventilation systems have been reported to require as much as 50-60% of total energy consumed in buildings and have become popular targets for energy conservation methods. Notes serious concern that arbitrary changes to codes and standards are being proposed in the name of energy conservation which could jeopardise health, safety or welfare of building occupants. Traces evolution of ventilation codes and standards in us.Treats difficulties encountered with measurement and direct control of indoor air quality. Notes common guide values for air contamination used.

Savings through CO2 based ventilation.

Suggests many ways of reducing outdoor air admitted to a building. Notes importance of measuring minimum air flow to ensure adequate ventilation. Suggests measuring the concentration of CO2 in indoor atmosphere and using the results to control incoming ventilation. Describes simple and inexpensive implementation of the technique.

Energy savings due to changes in design of ventilation and air flow systems

Claims procedures for design of ventilation and air flow systems are energy wasteful. Cause lies in their methods and technical bases and influence of other factors entering into final systems choice (particularly economics). Discusses outside air requirements. Concludes ventilation rate can be lowered 45% to 50% if higher humidities are used. Proposes new standards based on fact that ventilation rate is independent of air space per person. Analyses air distribution systems and sub-systems in terms of minimum energy requirements.

Effect of leakage in buildings on ventilation and energy demand. Rakennusten tiiviyden vaikutus ilmanvaihtoon ja sen energiankulutulseen.

Ventilation losses account for approximately 50% of heat consumed by a building. Treats characteristics of leakage generally. Estimates that decrease of ventilation of building stock in Finland by 0.1 air changes per hour would save about 100 million f marks annually. Provides practical instructions for controlling building leakage rates.

Behavioural approaches to residential energy conservation.

Outlines some research by social psychologists to induce people to reduce residential energy consumption. Results indicate that summer electricity consumption could be predicted from energy-related attitudes. Personal comfort and health concerns were the best predictors of consumption. Treats experimental examination in 3 separate studies of psychologically derived techniques to reduce summer electricity consumption. Gives results and conclusions.