Window design strategies to conserve energy.

A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing interior accessories, and building interior. Design strategies within these groups can improve one or more of the six energy functions of windows : solar heating, daylighting, shading, insulation, air tightness and ventilation. Gives 33 strategies for energy saving. Includes information on weatherstripping windbreaks, shutters, multiple glazing and many others.

Heating system-generated indoor air pollution

Heating systems may emit pollutants into living spaces of buildings. Presents model for estimating exposure to pollutants allowing for variation of air change rate and inside-outside temperature differences. Examines the effect of energy conservation measures. Concludes that if ventilation alone is reduced the pollutant concentrations will rise but if reduced ventilation is balanced by increased insulation then pollutant contributions will remain unchanged. The analysis applies only to pollutants generated by the heating system.

Energy consumption in multi-storey buildings related to windspeed. Zur Frage des Erhoten Heizwarmeverbrauches bei Wind.

Reports measurements made in six blocks of flats of energy consumption and wind speed. Gives graphs of results. Concludes that a moderate wind (of 30m/s) increases energy consumption by12% and a strong wind (60m/s) by 25%. Suggests heat loss can be reduced by tightening windows and controlling ventilation.

Evaluation of the effects of energy conservation measures in existing buildings.

In 1978 the Swedish parliament adopted a ten-year "energy saving plan for existing buildings". Outlines energy saving measures which qualify for public support. Describes survey made of randomly chosen buildings, which had received loans or subsides, to evaluate their effectiveness. Describes collection of information and gives method for calculating energy savings. Reports preliminary result that extra attic insulation leads to substantial energy saving as did replacement of boiler and burner in multi-family homes.

Reduction of air infiltration due to window and door retrofits in an older home.

Reports a project to assess the value of weatherstripping windows and doors in a 30-year old home. Describes house and retrofitting technique using stainless steel weatherstrips. Air infiltration rates before and after retrofit were measured using three independent methods, tracer gas dilution using SF6,pressurization/depressurization for the whole house and depressurization of individual windows. Finds that air-change-rate for the whole house was reduced by 10-14.7%giving a predicted reduction of 15.5% for a complete retrofit which would result in an energy saving of 4-6%.

Residential energy requirements and opportunities for energy conservation.

Reports study of energy consumption of typical house in Texas. Computer-based model was used to simulate house under different conditions of insulation, infiltration, shading and operation. Gives tables of results of variation in energy use. Finds comparison between "wasteful" and "conservative" home. Shows 56% decrease in annual energy consumption.Concludes that energy saving measures would be cost-effective.

Low energy passive solar housing handbook.

Suggests methods of conserving energy in new houses. Gives detailed instructions for installing vapour barrier; constructing double stud wall, insulating walls and windows. Also discusses moisture problems and the use of an air-to-air heat exchanger. Outlines other methods of saving energy and waysof refitting an older house.NOTES An updated second edition has been published as "Energy efficient housing - a prairie approach" abstract no.643.

Lifestyles and energy savings in villa-80 project, Umea. Boendevanor och energisparande i volla 80-projeket i Umea.

Suggests that occupants need domestic competence to attain designed savings envisaged in project. Reports sociological study to: investigate and map out individual behaviour patterns in relation to actual energy savings; follow up use of technical installations with respect to reactions and experience; assess reaction to living in airtight house with high technical standard. Describes interview techniques for assessing anything related to energy savings. Analyses use of technical equipment, domestic electricity and hot water.

Condensation risk and improved thermal performance of housing.

Considers the likely impact of alternative conservation measures on the incidence of surface and interstitial condensation on or within the elements of the building fabric. Considers specifically domestic buildings in temperate climates such as in the U.K. and Ireland. Outlines the mechanisms whereby condensation occurs and considers broadly the effect of reducing heating levels, reducing ventilation and increasing insulation.

How to make houses air tight. Hur tata hus?

States that considerable research has been carried out in Sweden in an attempt to conserve energy. Results of measurements of air infiltration obtained with tracer gas do not correspond well with those obtained by a pressure method. Air leakage in frame houses has been higher than expected. States need for air-tight components and reviews the consequences of tighter houses.