Windbreak effects on air infiltration and space heating in a mobile home.

During winter experiments in central Pennsylvania a windbreak, 61 metres long and composed of a single row of white pine trees, significantly reduced air infiltration rates and space heating energy needs in a small mobile home by upto 54% and 18% respectively. Greatest reductions in air infiltration rates occurred with the home at one windbreak height (1H) downwind, even though maximum reductions in wind velocity occurred at 2H or 4H downwind. Space heating energy savings were less sensitive to downwind position, with maximum energy savings measured at both 1H and 2H.

Heat recovery from exhaust air. Varmeatervinning ur ventilationsluft.

Describes two projects concerned with heat recovery in apartment buildings. Measures energy savings during normal operation when heat is recovered from exhaust air by a static flat-plate heat exchanger or by a heat pipe heat exchanger. Energy savings predicted during design stage are not achieved in practice because of inadequate system adjustment. Results show that energy savings can be calculated with good accuracy from individual measurements of temperature efficiency and supply air flow rates.

Final Report. An evaluation of the effectiveness of air leakage sealing.

Describes a field study carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the air leakage sealing techniques employed by Ener-Corp Management Ltd. for reducing air infiltration in houses. Performs presealing and postsealing air leakage tests on 82 single detached houses, located in Winnipeg or southern Manitoba. The sample group consisted of 56 conventionally-constructed houses of varying size, style, occupancy and airtightness, and 26 nonstandard structures of smaller but identical size and age. This latter group was part of the Flora Place Project.

Calculation methods to predict energy savings in residential buildings.

Writes for experts and non-experts on calculation methods for energy consumption in buildings. Gives a brief introduction to the physical and numerical bases used in this field. Presents the calculation methods investigated, selected to cover the simplest as well as the most complex methods in use. Describes calculation examples used for prediction of energy consumption and conservation. Analyses the calculation results and gives conclusions and recommendations. Concludes by covering work carried out on the influence of the inhabitants.

A low-cost computer-assisted energy diagnostic package to improve overall energy efficiency of existing and new buildings.

Develops and tests a low-cost computer-assisted diagnostic package to supply the architect and engineer with key information and understanding of the energy use, balance and resulting saving potential of existing and new buildings. The energy balance is shown in a standard graph. Heat losses are calculated in oil equivalent. The program has its own database for typical thermal performance values of different building types and meteorological data of 26 sites within Switzerland.

Building energy use compilation and analysis (BECA). Part B - Retrofit of existing North American residential buildings.

BECA-B assesses the technical performance and economics of energy conservation retrofit measures. The data collected represents measured energy savings and retrofit costs for over 65 North American residential retrofit projects. The sample size within each project ranges from individual homes to 33000 dwellings participating in a power company sponsored program. The medium value of space heating energy savings is 24% of the pre-retrofit consumption.

Building energy use compilation and analysis (BECA). Part C - Conservation progress in retrofitted commercial buildings.

Data on energy use was compiled for 223 retrofitted US commercial buildings and analysed for average savings, average retrofit costs, correlation between cost and savings, type of retrofit attempted etc. Dominant building types were schools and offices. Nearly all buildings included operations and maintenance changes as part of the retrofit. 89% of the buildings which saved energy by retrofitting achieved a payback (simple) in less than 3 years. 9% of the buildings failed to save (generally because of improper maintenance). Average savings for the entire sample were 20%.

Aspects and trends of building physics with regard to energy saving construction.

Stresses need to introduce sensible energy conservation measures into building and warns against superficially attractive solutions. Discusses reduction of ventilation heat loss by installation of mechanical ventilation incorporating heat recovery. Illustrates a mechanically ventilated dwelling with fresh air drawn into living areas and exhaust air leaving via the kitchen and WC. Treats further examples of mechanical ventilation which are adjusted according to necessary ventilation rates. Concludes by discussing trends in building construction concerned with conserving energy.

Ventilation controlled by requirements. Behovstyrt ventilation.

Indicates that 35-70% of a building's annual energy consumption is used by ventilation plant. Notes difficulty in determining which energy saving measures are most profitable but states that restricting fresh air supply tothat required is one measure that has not been considered and that most systems are designed for maximum capacity without facilities for varying load according to conditions. Describes plant which uses CO2-controlled ventilation in a sports hall. Illustrates circadian changes.

CO2 based ventilation in buildings.

Examines a new energy conservation technique based on the control of the "fresh air intake" through measurement of CO2 content in extracted air for different kinds of buildings. Assesses various techniques for measuring CO2 concentration in view to design a low cost sensor, concludes that theinfra-red absorption technique is the most suitable. Shows through computer simulation that a CO2 based ventilation system can provide a better pay-back period than an air-to-air heat exchanger.