It is common that the first cost is the main criterion when making choices between differentsystems. However, it is possible to demonstrate that a lower initial investment can turn out tobe more costly from the whole life-cycle viewpoint. With life-cycle cost (LCC) calculations, itis possible to get a better overview of the total cost. LC costs of typical systems (fan-coil,constant airflow rate, variable air volume and ventilated beams) were analysed and comparedin a case-study office building.
We studies the conditions in special old age nursing homes and elderly health care facilities in Japanespecially in a region with a cold climate. A questionnaire survey for all special old age nursing homes and elderly health care facilities in Sapporo and Fukuoka City, and Hokkaido, Saitama, Kanagawa, and Osaka Prefecture, and Tokyo Metropolis was performed. The main questionnaire asks about heating, air-cooling, ventilation systems, sanitary systems and indoor air quality including bio-aerosol and odours.
The objective of that study was to find out the important properties of ground covers, the optimal air change rates for the controlling of moisture conditions in an outdoor air-ventilated crawl space in a cold climate, and to estimate the acceptability of current moisture conditions in respect of material durability. In addition, factors affecting the transport indoors of possible pollutants from crawl spaces were studied.
The moisture conditions were calculated with a dynamic simulation model, which was validated against measured data.
The work of Task Force IX started in 1997 at a workshop in Washington Healthy Buildings conference. It continued at the Indoor Air ‘99 conference in Edinburgh, Scotland, and the following workshops took place at Healthy Buildings ‘00 in Helsinki, Finland
The airflows through a one family prototype building have been simulated. Supply openings in living room and bedrooms have a size of 200 and 400 cm2 respectively. The ventilation system is a passive stack ventilation system, with ventilation chimneys from kitchen, WC and bathroom. The following parameters have been studied: the supply opening areas and heights, the overflow opening areas between bedrooms and hall and between WC/bathroom and hall, the height of the ventilation chimneys and the opening and closing of living room and bedroom doors.
Basic requirements for healthy environments were well established before 1850 and implemented during the next 100 years as a vital condition for the remarkable improvements of general health and living standard in our welfare states.It is sad to observe that so much knowledge and wisdom seems to have evaporated during the last 50 years !
Even in cold climates, offices normally need to be cooled due to the internal heat loads from people, equipment and lighting. Either a chilled ceiling or chilled beams with cooled water as medium or chilled air can be used. In the case with chilled ceiling or chilled beams, a constant air volume system (CAV) is used. In the case of air only, a variable air volume (VAV) system must be used. This paper presents the advantages of the two methods of cooling with respect to energy use, which was calculated from climate data.
Even though simulation is being increasingly used in design of modern buildings, the full potential of simulation is usually not achieved. To improve building and HVAC system performance, designers usually guess different values of design parameters and then redo the simulation without actual knowing if the guessed value will lead to improvement. This is inefficient and labor intensive. In addition, if the number of design parameters being varied exceeds two or three, the designer can be overwhelmed in trying to understand the nonlinear interactions of the parameters.
Historically, industrial buildings have been simple constructions with no insulation. Ventilation has been natural through openings in the walls and in the roof. Around 1970 we started investigating airflows in large industrial premises by water model studies. This lead to a better understanding of the ventilation airflow patterns in heavy industries. In the following years, the principles were applied in practice. At the present, more than 30 large plants have been designed according to these principles and valuable experience has been gained.
The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system, life-cycle costs (LCC) and benefits of improved productivity were simulated in an office building located in a cold climate when improvements of air quality were made by increasing the outdoor air supply rate and by reducing the pollution loads. The building was ventilated by a variable air volume (VAV) system with an economizer or a constant air volume (CAV) system with heat recovery. The pollution loads were assumed to be similar to those in a non-low-polluting or low-polluting building.