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carbon dioxide

The Kyoto Commitment: the challenge for UK building services engineers in obtaining a contribution from the domestic sector.

The UK government has signed the Kyoto Protocol and it has committed to reducing C02 emissions to 20% below 1990 levels by 2010. As buildings are responsible for approximately half of the UK C02 emissions, of which the domestic sector accounts for 50%, meeting this target will require a significant contribution from the domestic sector.

Indoor air quality investigations at five classrooms.

Five classrooms, air-conditioned or naturally ventilated, at five different schools were chosen for comparison of indoorand outdoor air quality. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (C02), sulphur dioxide (S02), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (N02), particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total bacteria counts were monitored at indoor and outdoor locations simultaneously. Respirable particulate matter was found to be the worst among parameters measured in this study.

Destruction of VOC using photocatalyst under UC light irradiation - the influence of UV wavelength on mineralisation.

Avariety of gaseous pollutants in indoor air now are becoming an object to control. Thus, westudied a removal technique using TiO2 photocatalyst under 365 nm or 254 nm UV-lightirradiation for toluene, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as examples of hazardousvolatile organic compounds (VOCS), in order to get detailed analytical data for productsderived from these contaminants. Although these compounds were effectively destructed, notonly CO2 but also high concentration of toxic compounds, such as aldehydes were formed inthe case of under 365 nm UV-light irradiation.

Evaluation of domestic ventilation system performance by COMIS model for Japanese conditions.

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of four kinds of ventilation systems from the point of view of air exchange, indoor air pollution, and space heating load under Japanese conditions by numerical simulation. TVOC and CO2 are selected to characterise the indoor air quality impact to residents. The results show that the equivalent leakage area has great influence on air movement.

Ventilation demand in a subway train - based on CO2 bioeffluent from passengers.

The air quality in a subway-train was studied to suggest optimal design criteria and operationconditions based on the ventilation demand by passengers. The C02 emitted from thepassengers was the tracer for this study. The C02 bioeffluent from a human body was firstlyquantified and used for the data analysis. Then the C02 concentration was monitored in asubway-train being operated.

School ventilation - gymnasiums in primary schools.

The main objective of this study was to determine the ventilation demand for a gymnasium inthe primary school based on verified metabolic rate.Norwegian guidelines recommend 6.0met as the activity level to be used when calculating the outdoor air flow rate in a gymnasium.Younger pupils have a lower body mass and metabolic capacity than adults, and their demandfor ventilation is therefore lower. The metabolic rate has been assessed by measuring thepupils emission of the dominating bioeffluent CO2 during intensive gymnastic activity.

Experimental studies of the air quality evaluation.

Three buildings are investigated to study the indoor air quality and the impact of the outdoorair pollution. These buildings, a swimming pool, a school and a nursery are located in anurban area. So, during experimental studies, typical outdoor and indoor pollutants such ascarbon monoxyde, nitrogen dioxyde, carbon dioxyde, and total volatile organic compoundsare monitored. Also, the relative humidity and the temperature are carried out. The analysisallows us to reveal several points.

Development of a demand control strategy in buildings using radon and carbon dioxide levels.

Air change rates, indoor radon and carbon dioxide levels were monitored in a lecture theatre in the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Two preliminary measurements (Cases 1 and 2) and one series of demand control ventilation simulation (Case 3) were made to investigate the indoor air quality of the lecture theatre. Radon and carbon dioxide levels were found to be relatively high in Case 1 and later improved at the expense of operating the system catering for maximum occupancy in Case 2.

Meeting the United Kingdom's CO2 emissions reduction targets: the role of energy efficiency in residential buildings.

This paper examines the contribution that energy efficiency in residential buildings can make towards meeting the UK government' s commitment to reduce the country's C02 emissions by 20% relative to 1990 levels by the year 2010. It is based on work carried out by the authors and their colleagues, funded by the UK Electricity Association. Following a bottom-up modelling approach, the technological options available for use in residential buildings in the UK have been assessed.

Application of CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation using ASHRAE standard 62: optimising energy use and ventilation.

CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), when properly applied in spaces where occupancies vary below design occupancy, can reduce unnecessary over ventilation while implementing target per-person ventilation rates.