Ventilation can be advantageous as opposed to adventitious and, with careful building design, can eliminate the need for air conditioning in summer. This paper discusses the general principles of design for ventilation, inparticular the removal of excess heat, and presents two examples of buildings designed to eliminate air conditioning. One is a deep plan office block, the other an exhibition hall. In both cases ventilation models featured strongly in the design.
It is often stated that advanced ventilation or air conditioning is expensive or energy-wasting. There are, however, several examples of highly energy-efficient air conditioning systems in industrial, commercial and public buildings. Energy-efficiency can be achieved by - optimizing air flows or demand-controlled ventilation - avoiding simultaneous heating and cooling (except if "free") - advanced automatic control system - good operation and maintenance The performance of ventilation and air-conditioning depends on several factors in the building process.
The Linford project involved the design, construction and monitoring of 8 low energy houses in Milton Keynes. The houses were insulated to current Danish Regulation standards and incorporated several passive solar features. Seven occupied and
Reviews recent research in residential infiltration with an analysis of how the results are utilized in the design-build process. Identifies component testing as the research area most applicable to practical application efforts. Provides component and assembly test data. Discusses the need to reorient certain research efforts to more practically meet the needs of the residential industry. Presents clarifications and extensions of recently published work on component leakge.
Discusses MEPA (Microcomputer Energy Programs for Architects) which has been developed in Sweden to supply energy analysis information during the early stages of design of residential and small commercial buildings, and is used inSweden, Kuwait and the US. It is designed especially for architects using microcomputers.
Describes the Energy Performance Design System (EPDS) which is a simplified procedure for energy analysis based on extensive field testing, laboratory experiments and computer modelling. Provides a simple procedure for designing and evaluating the performance of energy-efficient homes. Describes thedevelopment of the simplified air infiltration model used in EPDS. The starting point for model development was a series of field studies on air infiltration conducted 1978-1981.
Describes a simple manual method for providing a rough calculation of the likely energy requirements of a building at an early stage in the project, before the detailed information required by established computer programs can be provided.
Notes job losses in prefabricated timber housing industry in Sweden and Hjaltevad's endeavours to produce a large series popular house with low-energy characteristics. House is on one and a half floors and has an occupied area of 150 sq.m. Heating economy is strongest sales argument with estimated annual consumption of 8000 Kwh. Low energy consumption results from electric boiler and heat pump. The heat pump assumes a mechanical exhaust air system and heat extracted is added to hot water system. Notes strict control of tightness before external cladding is nailed in position.
Describes a project undertaken for the CEC to build low-energy houses according to a particular design methodology, and to verify the efficiency and practical application of this design. Describes general site layout, climatic effects on the site, and design methodology as applied to the houses. Aims to undertake energy audits in each of the houses,including measurements of air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, "steady state" behaviour and air infiltration.
Outlines the design of 6 energy efficient houses in Co. Kildare by the Electricity Supply Board, Ireland. The aim of the project is to collect and disseminate information on the costs and benefits of energy efficient houses. The houses will be monitored both occupied and unoccupied over a number of years, using a microcomputer on-site, with the required parameter values eventually being processed on a mainframe computer. Includes a description of the methods to be used in minimizing natural ventilation losses eg improved window joinery, entry point lobbies and appropriate draught sealing.