A number of cases of water and frost damage in masonry and non loadbearing walls have been examined. This damage could not have resulted from vapour diffusion or rain penetration and is primarily caused by condensation due to exfiltration of air. Air exfiltrates through the many cracks and joints and in this connection the result of chimney action and wind is explained in some detail, including the pattern and magnitude of building pressure differences that induce ex-filtration together with a discussion regarding the moisture that is transferred. Some examples of related building failures are described.
Moisture accumulation in walls due to air leakage.
Canada NRC, Divn. of Bldg. Res., NRC 9131, D.B.R. technical paper no. 227