Energy conservation by regulation of the central mechanical ventilation in high-rise buildings - realistic or not

Describes an investigation to see what energy saving can be achieved by the regulation of mechanical ventilation systems in high rise buildings. Measures air leakage in a block of flats, and uses a calculation model to predict the amount of energy lost due to ventilation in various situations. Concludes that the reduction of ventilation has no disadvantageous consequences for the operation of the system, and that the extracted air flow is affected more by incorrect adjustment of extractor vents then by opening windows, regardless of the setting of the ventilator.

Energy losses due to airing by occupants.

States that the reduction in energy losses due to reduced air infiltration is often overestimated because the effect of open windows is not taken into account.< Shows that the habits of airing are rather similar in some European countries. The proportion of windows open or ajar is inversely proportional to the indoor- outdoor air temeperature difference over a large interval of this temperature difference.< The proportionality constant seems to take a value that is independent of the building construction or the heating system of the residential building.

The use of window ventilation by occupants of two blocks of flats as a function of the weather. Fenster-luftungsverhalten der bewohner zweier mehrfamilienhauser inabhangingkeit vom aussenklima.

Provides a summary of Report IIIb of the overall research project `air change in buildings' undertaken by the EMPA, Switzerland, sponsored by the Swiss Federal Ministry for Environmental Protection. Describes an investigation into the frequency and duration of window ventilation over an entire heating season by the occupants of 32 flats. Treats the two blocks of flats investigated, the results of questionnaire circulated to the occupants concerning ventilation habits, the measurement and observation methods applied, and the evaluation methods applied to the data obtained.

Natural ventilation of rooms:a simplified analytical study. La ventilazione naturale degli ambienti studio analitico semplificato.

Presents an analytical procedure for evaluating the air change rate in a room due to the temperature difference between the interior and exterior, which occurs when a door or window is opened.

The case for controlled ventilation of houses

Fresh air requirements in individual rooms of an occupied house vary between 0.5 and 2 air changes per hour depending on the number and activity of the occupants. The most common method of ventilation control is by opening windows but measurements show that even quite moderate window opening results in air change rates greater than 2 air changes per hour throughout a house.< Reports measurement of the energy cost of window opening in a test house with a heat loss coefficient of 5 kWh/K day. Finds in a low energy house,controlled ventilation is essential.

A representative survey on heating and ventilation conditions in dwellings. Reprasentativumfrage uber die Heiz- und Luftungsverhaltnisse in Wohnungen.

Gives results of a survey carried out in December 1978 on heating and ventilating of dwellings. 2000 men and women were questioned throughout the federal republic. Gives range of dwellings, desired and actual room temperatures, types of windows, frequency and duration-of window opening and the existence of draughts.< Concludes inter alia that heat loss through ventilation is greater than commonly assumed. In particular this heat loss is through leaky windows and ventilated bedrooms.

Ventilation with open windows

Shows need for intermittent high ventilation in dwellings to remove water vapour and odours. Suggests openable windows as the simplest and most common method of ventilation control. Gives air-change-rates in two british houses using carbon dioxide andnitrous oxide as tracer gases, showing the effect of opening windows. Shows that increase in ventilation rate caused by opening windows can be tenfold and is not confined to the room with the open window. Closing of internal doors has a significant effect. Describes investigation of air flow within rooms using smoke.

Window ventilation and human behaviour.

States that ventilation needs can be identified from a study of people's behaviour. Reports results of regular systematic observations of open windows in a group of scottish houses which confirmed earlier work in Britain. Finds that the number of open windows is a direct function of outdoor temperature or moisture content and was also influenced by air speed with a smaller number of windows being opened in windy weather. Large families opened their windows more frequently than small families. Suggests that moisture control may be the main motivation for opening windows.

Wind tunnel and on-site pressure distribution measurements on a house and its effects on infiltration

Summarizes measurements made on a flat. These include inside to outside temperature and pressure differences, infiltration rates using helium as a tracer gas, duration of opening windows and doors and weather conditions. Also describes wind tunnel measurements made on a model of the building with and without obstacles and terrain roughness.

Window opening in houses: an estimate of the reasons and magnitude of the energy wasted.

Detailed analysis of actual space heating requirements shows a much higher consumption in mild weather than predicted. Attributes this mainly to casual window opening, which accounts for 30% of total energy used. This factor will be greater in well-insulated houses where ventilation loss is proportionately greater. Examination of motives for window opening suggests high humidity levels are most likely. The trend to man-made fibres in soft furnishings with low moisture storage capacity accentuates humidity problem.