States direct observations of wind effects on real buildings are necessary for the development of reliable information for wind load estimation. Their essential role is to provide data for the guidance of systematic wind-tunnel investigations. Briefly reviews instrumentation used in a particular tall building and the methods employed to interpret the measurements. The review illustrates the potential, as well as some of the problems of field measurements in providing practical information about wind loading phenomena. Summarizes results and discusses their implications for design.
Compares wind pressures measured on a single-family dwelling with results obtained from a 1:50 scale model in a turbulent boundary layer. Shows that fluctuating components of surface pressures far exceeded mean or steady pressures and are well correlated over sizeable roof areas. Suggests that certain current provisions are marginal for tributary areas and excessive for localised area such as ridges, eaves and corners. Describes procedure for expressing loads on both localised and extended roof areas in terms of mean pressure coefficients and a peak factor.
Describes method for simulating natural wind boundary layer in a conventional, short working section, aeronautical wind tunnel. Boundary layers, which may be as thick as one-half of the working section height are generated by spires at the working section inlet. This approach is used to measure mean wind pressures and pressure spectra on a model of a tall building in downtown Montreal. Measurements are repeated using the long roughness fetch technique for boundary layer generation and results from the two methods compared.
Describes measurement of wind pressures on low-rise buildings at Aylesbury. Pressures were recorded simultaneously at over one hundred positions divided between seven houses in an estate and a specially constructed building situated on open ground adjoining the state. The roof pitch of the experimental building could be quickly varied to any angle between 5 and 45 deg. and this was used to investigate the variation of pressure distributions over the surfaces of the building. Data are presented for two skew wind directions. Initial comparisons are made with wind-tunnel tests.
Reports measurements made of wind pressures on a multi-storey building in London. Autocorrelations and power spectra were computed for the 48 pressure transducers and showed noticeable fluctuations in the pressures on the windward face, Possibly caused by a cushioning effect in front of the building "leaking" away at regular intervals. Mentions effect of the permeability of building. Comparisons made with wind tunnel tests improved when surrounding buildings were taken into account. Recommends design gust durations for various sizes of building.
Reports wind tunnel tests made on model building. Wind pressures on the models were measured using several manometers in holes on the windward side and a single manometer on the leeward side atwind speeds of approximately 35 feet and 45 feet per second. Single models and single models with a shielding building at varying distances were tested, and pressure distribution found.Comparison with full-scale tests indicates the general form of pressure distribution is the same but pressure reduction on leeward side is greater in full-scale test.
Analyses wind pressure records, taken during 5 different windstorms on 2 levels in a 400ft (122m) high office building in downtown Montreal March 1964 pressure fluctuations on an actual building. Preliminary work done to compare full-scale measurements with wind tunnel measurements indicates that simulation of basic statistical properties of wind pressure fluctuations can be successful when carried out in a boundary layer type of wind tunnel.
Wind pressure measurements made over a 4 years period on a 34-storey building in downtown Montreal were used to obtain data for checking and improving wind tunnel techniques of modelling flow characteristics of wind and aerodynamic behaviour of buildings. Specifies the major problems involved in making field measurements and in comparing them with wind tunnel measurements. Comparisons with model measurements are made. Examples have been found of excellent agreements, but for some wind directions the comparisons gave unsatisfactory correlation.
In a lecture held for T.V.V.L. members on 22nd November 1965, the influence of wind, direction of the wind and wind force on buildings were described showing the resulting pressure distribution around the building and the general effect of wind on buildings which are ventilated either naturally or mechanically. The influence of wind on a specific building can be determined by pressure measurements, for instance in a windtunnel. This is followed by measurements with an electric analogue in which light bulbs give an indication of the air movement.