With the increasing number of private cars possessed by salaried people, there has been a change in the condition of ventilation for underground garage. In accordance with this new situation, and from the point of energy saving, this article specially points out an approach, which can determine and control the quantity of ventilation for underground garage.
A dual-mode demand control ventilation strategy was developed targeting at using in institutional or similar buildings where the number of occupants varies frequently. One occupant-related and one non-occupant-related indoor contaminants were used as the indication signals to control the fresh air intake. The first contaminant is carbon dioxide, which is a good surrogate gas for bio-effluent and the second is radon which is non-occupant-related and had been identified as a major indoor air pollutant in some buildings in the university where this project has been carried out.
The first article described the second skin facade in relation to other types of facade such as the modern single-shell glass facade (curtain wall) and the climate-control facade. Various versions of the second skin facade were also discussed. This second article is a more in-depth look at the facade in relation to interior climate and air conditioning plants, and at construction dimensions for the second-skin facade.
Due to infection risks, high demands are set for the air quality in operating theatres. This is normally realised through the use of a downflow plenum. In this article the application of a fluid flow simulation program (CFD), as a design tool for the evaluation of a new ventilation design for operating theatres, is discussed. In this case an alternative downflow plenum has been investigated, that differs from the currently common designs. The use of CFD allowed for the examination of important design criteria and the resulting adjustments to the design.
Building-integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly common in developed countries and have the potential to contribute significantly to electricity generation as a benign alternative to fossil fuel generation. The University of Nottingham has recently completed a new campus, The Jubilee Campus. PVs are integrated into the roofs of four atria for the teaching buildings in the new campus. This paper presents the performance of roof-integrated PVs using CFD (computational fluid dynamics).
The exterior hood has been used extensively in the local exhaust devices to capture a variety of contaminants generated in a working-site. The performance of a hood can be measured by either how well it captures the contaminants or how far away it can perform an effective capture. It has been known theoretically that in the presence of an uniform cross draft a capture envelope will form in front of an exhausted opening(2, 3). All streamlines inside an envelope will lead into the opening; otherwise, those outside the envelope will lead to infinity downstream.
The starting point for designs which respond to our worsening environmental situation is a study of building form with particular emphasis on the facade and section and on materials. Only after these have been resolved to optimise the solar potential, to make the best use of daylight , to provide controllable assisted natural ventilation (including night cooling), to attenuate noise (if necessary) and to produce an attractive building should the design team as a whole tum to HVAC systems. To summarise, the plant is only part of the strategy and the smaller part the better.