The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of various design and operating parameters on smoking room performance. Twenty-eight experiments were conducted in a simulated smoking room with a smoking machine and an automatic door opener. Measurements were made of air flows, pressures, temperatures, two particle-phase ETS tracers, two gas-phase ETS tracers, and sulfur hexafluoride. Quantification of leakage flows, the effect of these leaks on smoking room performance and non-smoker exposure, and the relative importance of each leakage mechanism are presented.
A variety of strategies have been implemented to protect nonsmokers from second hand smoke; these include separation or restricting smoking to selected areas, installation of air cleaners, increased ventilation, and outright prohibition of smoking. The concentrations of nicotine were measured and examined in different venues as a function of the techniques employed.
In the light of difficulties associated with giving up smoking, which is the most effective strategy for household members to adopt to reduce children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home, an evaluation has been undertaken of other
Sixty pubs were investigated in the UK to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations in smoking and non-smoking areas. The ETS sampling equipment is described. A statistical exploitation of the results shows that the status of the zone has a big influence on its ETS level: ETS concentration in smoking areas is higher than in non-smoking areas, but ETS exposures are significant in the non-smoking parts. Results also show that the effect of the ventilation system on the ETS concentration is not significant in such pubs.
The study evaluated the strength of tobacco smoke odour by sense of smell. Similar tests were done for other irritants in tobacco smoke. Concludes that an outside air supply of 35 to 40 cfm per smoker is required to remove objectionable odours of fresh cigarette smoke. Also concludes that there in no way to ascertain whether the ventilation requirements for controlling smoke, odour and irritation effects are adequate to protect a non-smoker from possible effects of nicotine and other poisonous elements of smoke of unknown toxicological thresholds.
Relates exposure measurements for indoor air quality in schools to perception of IAQ by employees. A questionnaire was used to gather information on subjective air quality, domestic exposures and health aspects. 38 schools were covered in the study. A 53% section of personnel reported bad or very bad indoor air quality. Worst reports came from the younger personnel, those dissatisfied with their psychosocial work climate and those not exposed to domestic tobacco smoke. Less IAQ dissatisfaction was reported for older schools and those with displacement ventilation.
Describes how a physical compartmental model (INTAIR) has been parameterised to estimate PM10 concentrations and has been used to assess the contribution of smoking to PM10 levels for typical homes in the UK. Concludes that smoking activity at home increases the daily mean concentrations in the living room by 1-1.5 microgrammes per m3 per cigarette smoked, and that this may contribute significantly to personal exposures to PM10.
Considered a wide range of indoor and outdoor urban microenvironments in a study of the concentrations of 15 volatile organic compounds. For most VOCs, mean concentrations in cars exceeded those at heavily trafficked roadside locations. No correlation was found between indoors and outdoors, though concentrations were higher indoors. As a consequence, in poorly ventilated buildings, indoor emission source strength is considered a more significant influence on concentrations of VOCs in indoor air than outdoor air concentrations.