Endotoxin is one of the most powerful inflammatory mediators known. This explains the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers.In this study, GC-MSMS Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used to analyze the presence of endotoxin in smoke from active smoking and in environmental tobacco smoke.
In developed countries, allergens, gas cooking and tobacco smoking represent a majorrisk, whereas in many developing countries wood stoves and indoor fuel cooking are moreimportant.Building-related illnesses represent another problem. The effects of indoor pollution are getting worseby poor living conditions and poor ventilation.
ETS has been recognized as a toxic agent in 1986 that could cause lung cancer, effect the pulmonary function, later on, other studies and surveys found association between ETS and asthma, with risk of coronary heart disease. This paper is a review of those different studies.
This article presents the difficulty for ASHRAE to take into account the high levels of ventilation requiries and to combine them with the demand for "guidance" encouraged by the tobacco industry and its allies.
There is increasing evidence of a causal link between airborne particles and ill health and thisstudy examined the exposure to both airborne particles and the gas phase contaminants ofenvironmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a bar. The work reported here utilized concurrent andcontinuous monitoring using real-time optical scattering personal samplers to recordparticulate (PM10) concentrations at two internal locations. Very high episodes were observedin seating areas compared with the bar area.
There is increasing evidence of a causal link between airborne particles and ill health and thisstudy monitored the exposure to both airborne particles and the gas phase contaminants ofenvironmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a nightclub.The present study followed a number of pilot studies in which the human exposure toairborne particles in a nightclub was assessed and the spatio-temporal distribution of gas phasepollutants was evaluated in restaurants and pubs.
This article presents how ventilation and air quality in smoking spaces are being treated by ANSI/ASHRAE standard 62, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Historical information is given about environmental tobacco smoke and ventilation requirements in the standard since its first issue in 1973. The status of the 31 addenda to the 1999 version of the standard, some of them being included in the 2001 version, others still being in discussion or in the process to be adopted, is explained. Among them are four smoking-related addenda : 62e, 62g, 62o and 62ag.
This document results from a Working Group set up by the World Health Organization. It reviews States current approaches to protect population from environmental tobacco smoke exposure. The meeting defined conditions for successful policies and recommended strategies for future action.
On March the 1st 2000 the Finnish Tobacco Act was amended, and now includes restrictions on smoking in restaurants and bars. Establishments can reserve a maximum of 50% of their service area for smokers, and the spreading of tobacco smoke into non-smoking areas must be prevented. In addition, the working areas at bar counters have to be smoke-free. 16 restaurants and bars participated in the study both before and after the introduction of the Finnish Tobacco Act.
Restaurant workers have a high risk to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in their work. In Finland the latest tobacco Act has set more stringent requirements for the smoking in restaurants. Despite of the tightened legislation most of the restaurant employees are still continuously exposed to ETS. Ventilation techniques enable significantly to reduce employees exposure to ETS in hospitality facilities, where smoking is permitted.