Newly constructed residential houses in Japan are better insulated and more airtight than their predecessors to increase energy conservation. Although reduced energy consumption was expected, the energy performance of these buildings has not yet been clarified. Therefore, the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in 300 well-insulated and airtight houses newly constructed in the Tohoku District, the northern part of Honshu Island, were investigated by a questionnaire survey.
This paper describes a residential research facility built for the experimental measurement of the relative energy and moisture performance of various residential building envelope components and systems. The building comprises 12 test bays on an east/west axis bounded on each end by a guard bay. The eastern six test bays are framed in steel, and the western six bays are framed in wood. Each half of the building contains a symmetrical mix of vented and unvented cathedral and attic roofing systems and is built above a heated basement.
In 1993, the Open University in Milton Keynes, UK, refurbished the open-plan first floor Design Studio in their Publishing Department to use natural ventilation to keep the interior cool. At the same time the third floor, which was not suitable for passive cooling, was fitted with mechanical comfort cooling units and the intermediate floor was not changed. This paper compares tl1e thermal performance of the three floors and discusses the results of a staff-satisfaction survey conducted among the occupants.
In the temperate climate, the consistency of bioclimatic designs for heating and cooling is essential. However, the traditional Japanese houses which have excellent cooling techniques often disclose their poor thermal performance in the winter time. Since Jong it has been said that they sacrificed the heating performance in return for the cooling performance, as a result of their choice in the time when the consistency was technically impossible.
This paper will describe a proposal to upgrade a thermally sub-standard multi-storey housing block (Type T84), where height and climatic exposure are significant, to demonstrate the effectiveness of passive, active and hybrid solar techniques to minimise space and water heating loads while enhancing the quality of air in both shared and private spaces.
A bioclimatic house for Tamare, Venezuela, designed to provide psychological, physical and social well being through improved comfort and less energy consumption is explained. Digital and analog models were built to analyze sunlight and shadow behavior and computer simulations to predict thermal performance. Assuming a maximum comfort temperature of 30° C we achieve<! 95% of satisfaction when we ventilated at night and closed the building during daytime.
Passive and low energy houses are not yet widespread throughout the world. One of the reasons is that their actual performance has not been clarified. In recent years, the number of houses has been increasing in Japan, however, there are very few examples of multiple dwelling building whose performance has been clarified. The annual thermal performance of two dwelling units in a multiple dwelling building in Japan is measured and their high performance is verified.
The need for energy efficient buildings is outlined, and the principal issues relating to commercial developments are discussed. The importance of natural cooling is highlighted, and the associated principle are examined. Some ways in which this can be achieved in conventional steel framed construction are presented. The suggestions include passive systems which rely simply on exposing sufficient thermal capacity of the building fabric, and active systems which provide greater control and improved performance. They represent an application of technology for sustainable development.