Rehabilitation and the building enclosure.

In projects to rehabilitate old buildings in Canada, it is general practice to clear out the entire interior of a building, leaving only the structure and some or all of the exterior walls and roof. The new interior conditions impose more severe loads on the building envelope and hence walls and roofs must be upgraded. Discusses improvement of walls and roofs to increase airtightness, reduce rain penetration and conserve energy use. Discusses the effect of insulation and the location of insulation on the envelope performance and possible types of wall and roof modification.

Energy efficient housing: a prairie approach.

This is a practical handbook for constructing an energy efficient house. Describes energy conservation measures for the reduction of space heating in an average house on the Prairies. Describes conservation measures for a new house which include the improvement of air tightness, insulation, passive solar gainand insulation of window systems. Also describes refitting an older house, reducing energy used to heat water and reducing electricity consumption. Gives a short list of sources of information.

Window design strategies to conserve energy.

A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing interior accessories, and building interior. Design strategies within these groups can improve one or more of the six energy functions of windows : solar heating, daylighting, shading, insulation, air tightness and ventilation. Gives 33 strategies for energy saving. Includes information on weatherstripping windbreaks, shutters, multiple glazing and many others.

Application of thermography for evaluating the effectiveness of retrofit measures.

Reports the use of thermography for evaluating the effectiveness of a number of different retrofit measures carried out on single family dwellings in Twin Rivers. Discusses the use and limitations of thermography. Gives thermograms of parts of the houses before and after retrofit. Finds thermography is an effective tool for evaluating these retrofit measures which decreased the energy consumption by about 25%.

Improvements to existing buildings. Bygggtekniska mojligheter att spara energi i befintlig bebyggelse.

This is a practical handbook for retrofitting existing buildings. Describes with illustrations the addition of insulation, weatherstripping windows, and doors, addition of triple glazing and the installation of a vapour barrier. Discusses the savings for three different climate zones in Sweden.

Radon in swedish buildings.

Outlines problem of radon in buildings and current state of knowledge. Suggests reduction of radon by a) more efficient ventilation, b) use of diffusion resistant films to seal wall surfaces and c) elimination of certain active materials. A research project at the Swedish Council for Building Research is currently investigating the problem.

Reducing heat loss through window retrofitting

Provides table showing that annual heat loss through windows in U.S. accounts for about 5% of total energy consumption, or around 1.5 times energy derived from oil transported by alaskan pipeline, costing $30 billion annually. Describes relatively simple window treatment to eliminate substantial portion of thisloss which involves tightly sealed, interior-applied insulating panels. Demonstrates how performance of several such systems was predicted and verified by standard test methods.

Air leakage characteristics of low-income housing and the effectiveness of weatherization techniques for reducing air infiltration

Reports measurements of air change rates made on approximately 250 dwellings, occupied by low income households in 14 cities, in all major climatic zones of the United States. Two types of measurements were used : a tracer-gas decay technique using air sample bags and a fan depressurization test that measures induced air exchange rates. Shows that for this group of dwellings natural air infiltration rates have an approximate lognormal distribution.

Locating and eliminating obscure but major energy losses in residential housing.

Outlines a number of experimental approaches for determining the energy consumption of a building, with emphasis on air infiltration. The combined use of depressurization of the house and infrared scan permits the location of "bypass" vents through which warm air is leaving the structure. Describes several types of bypasses and evidence for their widespread existance is documented. Discusses the side effects of retrofitting these and other energy loss sites with regard to fire safety, air quality and moisture.

Air infiltration reduction through retrofitting.

Documents and compares the air infiltration levels experienced in five Twin Rivers townhouses before and after retrofit. The retrofits sealed and caulked window frames, sealed cracks along the attic floor/party wall Junction and reduced leakage from basement to attic. Weather data and air infiltration rates were analysed using multiple regression, polar plotting, stemleaf plotting and comparisons of infiltration rates with inside to outside temperature differences. Gives results in graphs and tables.