Retrofitting existing homes for energy conservation: An economic analysis.

Examines the economic aspects of energy conservation techniques suitable for retrofitting into existing homes. Includes insulation, storm windows and doors, and weatherstripping. The object of this study is to determine that combination of techniques which will maximise net dollar savings in life-cycle operating costs for heating and cooling operations in existing homes, subject to specific climate conditions, fuel costs and retrofitting costs.

Energy saving measures for municipal and other office buildings.

This research report explores the possibilities for energy saving in municipal office buildings. It is based on a study carried out for one London borough in mid-1980`s taking one specific building complex, comprising two adjoining buildings, as an example. The energy-saving measures covered include reduction of air-change rates by draught- proofing windows doors and skylights, and the report indicates the scale of potential savings along with the capital costs.

Repairing older windows. Utbedring ev eldre vinduer.

Comments on the aesthetic aspects of window renovation and replacement and describes common forms of deterioration giving detailed suggestions for repair and for the improvement of air tightness and sound insulation.

Infiltration measurements in audit and retrofit programs.

A model that relates fan pressurization results to infiltration values during the heating season is the basis for infiltration estimates in several different audit programs. Describes the model and presents validation results. The model is used in three different audit strategies. The first is an energy audit to determine economically optimal retrofits for residential buildings, based on actual on-site measurements of key indices of the house.

Improvements to existing windows. Atgarder med befintliga fonster.

Describes some improvements to existing windows, such as increase of thermal insulation and airtightness, easier handling of windows consisting of separate casements, repairs, maintenance and alterations to be made when old windows are replaced.< In the section dealing with thermal insulation, tests were carried out by installing a third pane in the windows in 10 houses, and by reducing ventilation between the panes in 20 houses.< Repair of some types of damage was observed in some case studies.

Natural ventilation and the P.S.A. estate.

Gives results of a statistical survey of energy consumption in British government buildings. Suggests one reason for high consumption may be excessive ventilation. Reports field trial of the effect of reducing natural ventilation in a London office building. Window frames were sealed with a rubber mastic, giving an annual fuel saving of 22%. Finds measure was highly cost effective with a payback period of less than three years.< Discusses problem of heat loss through large doors in hangars and workshops.

Changes of indoor climate in dwellings because of renewal of windows and tightening of joints. Indeklimaforandringer i bolige efter vinduesudskiftninger og fugetaetning.

In order to reduce heating energy consumption, single glazed windows are commonly replaced by double glazing and joints tightened in Danish dwellings. Reports investigation of the influence of such tightening of dwellings on the indoor climate. 25 tightened and 25 not-tightened identical flats were investigated. Finds an improvement in thermal climate and a significant reduction in heat consumption in the retrofitted flats. Finds absolute humidity of indoor air was significantly higher in improved flats, probably due to reduced ventilation.

Criteria for retrofit materials and products for weatherization of residences.

Notes that many existing dwellings are inadequately insulated and in need of caulking and weatherstripping. Gives criteria for the selection of retrofit materials which are eligible for the Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program. Materials discussed are insulation, storm windows and doors, caulks and sealants, weatherstripping, vapour barriers, clock thermostats and replacement windows. Discusses the literature on retrofitting. Describes the different caulks and sealants available. Outlines precautions to be taken when applying different retrofit materials.

Techniques for control of air infiltration in buildings.

Discusses materials and systems for reducing or eliminating air infiltration through identified leakage sources. Methods include caulking, adhesive/glass mat, weatherstripping, vent dampers etc. Gives recommended procedure for treating new and existing construction by pressurizing the building to detect air leaks, then retrofitting to reduce leakage. Cost effectiveness of the methods has not been reliably measured but the evidence suggests that many air infiltration reduction materials are highly cost effective. Gives bibliography of 233 citations.

The Ulvsunda project - energy saving in existing housing.

Reports results of a project to assess energy conservation measures in a group of typical three-storey, naturally ventilated, blocks of flats, built in 1940 in Stockholm. The measures were:< 1) Improvement of boiler efficiency< 2) Weatherproofing of windows and doors< 3) Adjustment of the heating system and reduction of indoor temperature< 4) Additional insulation of attic floor<5) Additional insulation of external walls< Discusses the energy conservation effect and profitability of each measure.