Energy conserving retrofits and indoor air quality in residential housing.

Assesses the impact of energy-conserving retrofits on air leakage and indoor air quality for several houses that are part of a weatherization programme in the Pacific Northwest offered by a power and light company. Indoor air quality was measured using the Energy Efficient Buildings (EEB) mobile laboratory containing sampling, monitoring, and calibration equipment. Leakage area of the building envelope was determined using the fan pressurization technique.

Caswell Hill infiltration work-study project. Final report.

Reports on a project carried out in the Caswell Hill and Riversdale areas of Saskatoon to investigate the effectiveness of sealing with caulking and weatherstripping to reduce air leakage. This involved sealing 10 homes, and also insulating the attics and basements of five of these houses after thesealing work. A control group of 10 homes which had been insulated without particular attention being given to sealing procedures were also monitored. The homes were pressure tested by the National Research Council before and after sealing to measure the reduction in air leakage.

Mark XI energy research project. Summary of results 1978-1981.

Reports on a study carried out by HUDAC and DBR on four identical detached houses built in Ontario in 1977. House 1 was built according to the insulation requirements of the 1975 Ontario Building Code, the others were constructed with increased levels of insulation and air tightness. Some of the aims are:

Improvement of airtightness in four schools.

Air leakage tests (using the fan pressurisation method) were conducted on four schools, before and after they were retrofitted, in order to determine the effectiveness of various measures for reducing leakage. Caulking wall joints will generally reduce air leakage and is worthwhile if the joints are accessible. Replacing leaky windows will also improve airtightness but may not be cost effective. Routine inspection of outside dampers of the air handling system can help ensure continued airtightness of schools.

The house doctor's manual.

Describes "house doctoring", a combination energy audit and energy-saving retrofit procedure developed at LBL and Princeton University. House doctoring analyzes areas of energy loss, and locates and eliminates air infiltration sites by using special diagnostic equipment, such as the "blower door" forpressurisation tests. The first part of the manual provides an introduction and overview of house doctoring, including the nature of heat loss in buildings and the tools and techniques used to reduce it.

Energy improvement kits - field results.

Outlines project where 25 representative dwellings from Birmingham Local Authority Housing stocks were monitored before and after energy retrofitting. Findings are presented as a set of case studies encompassing both fabric and infiltration measures. Suggests that simple energy conservation measures are successful but that more sophisticated combinations tend to under-achieve. Ventilation changes in several cases are impaired by increased use of windows and/or permanent ventilation. Where these effects are'nt operating, reductions of between 0.3 - 0.6 ac/hr appear typical.

Influence of different parameters on infiltration and infiltration heat loss.

This parameter study with the IMG calculation model for ventilation is an attempt at forming some background for decisions relating to the preparation of a standard in the Netherlands. From the results one can see that air tightness and the heat loss caused by infiltration cannot be considered as a simple linear relationship .

Infiltration measurement and control in the context of an energy audit.

Describes an energy audit being developed at LBL to determine economically optimal retrofits for residential buildings, based on actual, on-site measurements of key indices of the house. Measurements are analyzed on a microprocessor and retrofit combinations compatible with minimum life-cycle cost and occupant preferences are then determined. An important element of this audit is its treatment of infiltration.

Estimating effects of energy conservation measures: a Swedish study.

Reports on the Swedish Energy Saving Survey of 1980, which produced two kinds of estimates on the effects of a number of energy conservation measures:< 1. Theoretical estimates based on simple degree-day models.< 2. Empirical estimates based on the amount of savings actually obtained in a house after retrofitting.< Compares the two methods of estimation, which shows the limitations of the theoretical estimates.

House doctor visits - optimizing energy conservation without side effects.

Shows the development of a procedure at Princeton University which involves an instrumented energy audit combined with a partial retrofit, and especially applicable to post-war single-family housing. This procedure is known as the `house-doctor' approach and is being tested in a 168 house experiment. Preliminary results show a 10-15% reduction in total use of natural gas following partial retrofit measures. Further retrofits based on house doctor observations led to a 20-25% reduction.