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occupant reaction

Contribution of radon to overall exposure to radiation in a ten storey block building.

Radon is an inert radioactive gas released into the atmosphere from certain minerals and man-made products in which it is produced. It can accumulate in confined spaces. Radon emanation into a building can come from: the underlying soil, the building materials, tap water and natural gas. The principal isotope, 222Rn, decays to products which if inhaled can result in exposure of the respiratory tract to alpha radiation. The decay products, radon daughters, are significant because of their potential to cause health effects.

Radon in the workplace - a study of occupational exposure in BT underground structures.

During the period August 1993-0ctober 1994 a study was undertaken throughout British Telecommunications pie to assess occupational exposure to radon. This paper is concerned only with that portion of the work concerned with underground structures. The results show that radon can build up to very high concentrations in manholes and implies a significant risk to those who need to work in them.

Symptoms experienced, environmental factors and energy consumption in office buildings.

A major increase of complaints has been observed by the occupants of buildings, concerning health symptoms and comfort. In this study, the occupants' experience of symptoms as well as the occupants' sensation of the environmental parameters were estimated in six office buildings, where the indoor air quality was investigated. It was found that the percentage of building related symptoms experienced by the occupants of the buildings was high and it was strongly related to human comfort and human sensation concerning the environmental conditions.

The effect of contaminant source location on worker exposure in the near wake region.

 The exposure of workers in the near-wake region due to a recirculating airflow was studied experimentally and numerically. A mannequin was installed in an open-ended tunnel and tracer gas was released at several locations downstream to determine the size and location of the reverse flow region. The contaminant transport into the breathing zone was found to depend strongly on the location of the release point. The airflow field was also determined numerically assuming a steady 6ow and using the standard k-£ turbulence model.

Personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms.

Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification height is examined by means of fullscale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone.

Implications of indoor climate control for comfort, energy and environment.

This paper critically examines the underlying premises of indoor climate control technologies and the HV AC industry (heating, ventilating, air-conditioning). It questions whether 'total environmental control' is possible, effective and desirable. The paper also reviews the methods and terminology of thermal comfort science focusing on the question of predictability of people's environmental preferences.

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