Personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in eight European cities.

Exposures to respirable suspended particles (RSP) and both the particulate and vapour phases of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were monitored in eight European cities. Over 1500 housewives and office workers participated in the studies by wearing personal monitors over a 24-h period to assess exposures in the home and workplace. Based upon median 24-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations, the most highly exposed subjects throughout Europe were office workers living and working with smokers.

Architecture for intelligent thermostats that learn from occupants' behaviour.

This paper proposes a new approach to thermostat design. For many years, thermostats have been "dumb" devices, meaning that they react to their environment either by direct user control or by previous user programming. This new approach details an intelligent thermostat that learns about the behavior of the occupants and their environment and controls ambient temperature to maintain comfort according to human specifications. In that way, the thermostat reduces the number of interactions with the user and eliminates the need for them to learn how to program the device.

The influence of human activity on the vertical distribution of airborne particle concentration in confined environments: preliminary results.

Vertical concentration profiles for various size fractions of airborne particulate matter have been measured in a nonsmoking indoor environment used mainly as a meeting point during coffee break (11.00 a.m.) and tea time (4.00 p.m.). This monitoring exercise was carried out using a novel sampling system specifically designed for measuring concentration gradients of airborne particles (but which can be easily modified for gaseous pollutants) over the first three metres from ground. The results show substantial gradients in concentration, with the highest occurring at around 1.3 m height.

Rules for cooling through motorized vent windows.


Modelling people.