Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Fri, 10/25/2013 - 16:41
Solar chimneys may provide enough ventilation to buildings when properly designed. Although many design tools, theoretical models and experimental studies have been reported, the impact of many design parameters such as the construction thickness, the thermal resistance of the walls, the absorptivity of the internal surfaces of the chimney, the thermal mass of the chimney and the type of glazing, is not well known. This paper aims to provide information on the optimum sizing of the above parameters.
Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Fri, 10/25/2013 - 16:39
In the light of global environmental problems, it is vital for buildings to conserve energy and make use of natural energies. Natural ventilation is one important method for achieving this. In houses, natural ventilation is a very attractive way to control the indoor environment. Compared to this, mid- to high-rise buildings include many closed spaces where windows cannot be opened and internal heat is trapped inside, which increases the cooling load. Based on this situation, consciousness of environmentally friendly buildings and utilization of natural energy becomes high.
The work described in this paper formed part of the European UrbVent project on urban ventilation.Measurements of wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature were made at four different heights, inside a pedestrian street canyon in the centre of Athens, Greece, and at the top of the canyon. In addition, infrared radiation on the canyon faades was measured. Experimental data were collected at intervals of 30 seconds. The dimensions of the canyon were: height/width=2.3, length/height=50/23=2.2 with an orientation of 12 degrees from North.
Ventilation towers are often incorporated into the design of naturally-ventilated buildings. These towers increase the physical height of the building and thereby potentially enhance the buoyancy-induced air velocity. However, acoustic baffles, insect meshes, etc., placed within the towers result in pressure losses that effectively reduce the area of the flow path, thereby restricting the rate of airflow.
Top down natural ventilation systems, usually referred to as ‘windcatchers’, have been used recently in modern non-domestic buildings in the UK. These systems combine inlet and outlet into a single roof mounted terminal, which is split into sections. Literature exists on theoretical, scale modelling and wind tunnel tests to evaluate the performance of the systems; however there is a scarcity of performance in-use tests. This paper presents the results of air exchange rate tests using the tracer gas decay method carried out in three operational buildings with windcatchers.
This paper examines the performance of a large new multi storey building which relies exclusively on natural ventilation. The building is designed to provide the main library and associated functions for Coventry University. The research outlines the sophisticated control systems necessary for such a building and provides an analysis of the strategies and techniques required for its implementation. A case study of user satisfaction demonstrates that a large naturally ventilated building can provide a pleasant comfortable environment for occupants.
According to its location, thermal mass can be approximately classified into two types: external and internal. Internal thermal mass, such as furniture and purpose-built internal concrete partitions, does not expose to ambient temperature directly, while external thermal mass, such as walls and roofs, expose directly to ambient temperature variation. A virtual sphere method for modelling thermal mass is introduced and its application in building thermal mass design is discussed.
A task/ambient air-conditioning system with natural ventilation was installed in a high-rise office buildingin Osaka, Japan. This paper will report the results of the field measurements of indoor thermalenvironment and natural ventilation opening performances. From the thermal environmental aspect,the office is properly divided into working task zones and a general ambient zone so as to ensureboth occupants comfort and energy savings. Task air-conditioning is for satisfying individual thermalpreferences by using floor outlets.
The double-glazed external wall (double-skin) system is an effective passive technique that candecrease solar heat gain into the building. Detailed information concerning the thermal characteristicsof the double skin is necessary to accomplish a good design for thermal comfort and energy-saving.In this paper, the 3-dimensional thermal characteristics of the double skin that had the openingspartially installed and was partially shaded by the adjacent building were investigated by a fieldmeasurement.
The summer natural wind environments inside an airport terminal building under two cases aresimulated by the method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in this paper. The two cases havedifferent opening areas for glass curtain wall. Case 1 has the opening ratio of 10% while Case 2 has30%. The paper also uses DeST to simulate the annual natural temperature distribution under twokinds of opening ratio in a whole year.