Servicing the Millennium Dome.

With a diameter of 320m, and a height of 50m the Millennium Dome is one of the World's largest enclosed spaces, probably the largest among those intended for public use. This paper briefly discusses some of the Building Services issues involved in the design and construction of the Dome, concentrating on the ventilation, and heating/cooling of the building. Buro Happold are the engineers for the Dome responsible for Structural, Building Services, Fire and Access Engineering of the main structure and many of the exhibitions within it.

The application of CFD to large scale industrial premises.

This paper introduces a research programme investigating the application of CFD to large scale industrial premises. A number of modelling issues and two case studies are discussed. The research programme will lead to an increased degree of confidence of CFD simulation results in complicated environments.

Interaction of radiation absorbed by moisture in air with other forms of heat transfer in an enclosure.

The impact of the radiation absorbed by room air moisture 011 heat transfer and air temperature distribution was investigated. Both analytical and CFO approaches were used. For large spaces such as atria, industrial workshops, hotel lobbies, and aircraft hangers, the neglect of radiation absorbed by the moisture within the air volume can lead to significant errors.

Airflow patterns in Schonbrunn Palace.

The purpose of this study is to find more information of the complicated air flow pattern in the SchOnbrunn palace. The aim is to improve the control of the air infiltration. We have used a passive tracer gas technique, a special case of the constant injection technique, called the homogeneous emission technique. The results gives Air Change Rate's (ACH) of 0,7 to 1,7 in different rooms and parts of the palace. Wind driven ventilation dominates stack driven ventilation. We found a considerable air flow between floors.

A study on the prediction of the thermal environment in a large glass covered atrium using natural ventilation.

In predicting the thermal environment of an indoor space affected seriously by the outdoor weather like an atrium using natural ventilation, it is essential to grasp the impact of the external outdoor weather precisely. This report describes the result of the analysis of the outdorr and indoor region including solar radiation analysis considering the date and hour, latitude and longitude taking the atrium under construction in Kyoto as an example.

A holistic approach to a new superstore environment for the next millennium.

A concept design is proposed for a new generation of superstores, which addresses the global problem of Carbon Dioxide emissions and the demand of retail traders for increasing economies in energy. The new superstore building has been engineered from the ground up to incorporate the current best practice in environmental design. With application of suitable energy conservation technologies it is proposed that this approach will provide a retail environment fit for the next millem1ium and achieve a 50% reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions over a conventional supermarket.

Probe 18: Portland Building.

Hampshire County Council has a deservedly high reputation for imaginative, low energy educational buildings. In 1995, County Architect Sir Colin Stansfield-Smith worked his magic for Portsmouth University. Has the mixed mode solution for the Portland Building done the trick?

Monitoring indoor climate in a medieval castle.


Energy retrofit of aircraft hangar facility.