Concentrates on low energy housing construction in Scandinavia, and Sweden in particular, where typical new detached houses with a floor area of 140 m2 now use less energy for space heating than water heating.
Experimental measurements have been conducted on eight houses in the Ottawa area to study the changes induced in house performance when loose-fill insulation is installed in walls. The report presents details on the induced changes in furnace performance, house airtightness, temperatures, humidity levels and position of the neutral pressure plane. ECAP (Enhanced Conservation Assistance Program) auditing procedures were applied to the houses, and the predicted fuel consumptions showed a considerable disagreement with actual values.
The Linford project involved the design, construction and monitoring of 8 low energy houses in Milton Keynes. The houses were insulated to current Danish Regulation standards and incorporated several passive solar features. Seven occupied and
Energy-related variables were monitored in six detached houses in Winnipeg, Manitoba, before and after the houses were retrofitted by re-insulating the exterior walls and ceiling, or walls only, with blown loose-fill glass-fibre or cellulose
The installation of much tighter windows has led to reduced rates of natural ventilation in German dwellings. This has resulted in increased indoor air humidity and condensation formation on the inner surfaces of external building elements with thermal bridges. Notes the areas most at risk from condensation and mould, in particular corners of outside walls and along the ceiling angle.
Outlines the fundamentals of insulation and airtightness, proper air quality, and ventilation. Presents details of design and construction for walls, roofs, foundations, windows, and air-vapour barriers, as well as discussions of ventilation systems, heating systems, appliances and methods of testing and evaluation. One of the appendices gives weather data for selected US and Canadian cities. Aims to be accessible to the interested layperson or homeowner.
Dynamic insulation is a means of reducing building heat losses to near zero without the use of massive thermal insulation. It relies on recycling the heat conducted through the fabric or reducing the temperature gradient by means of a suitable heat transport fluid - usually air and sometimes water. Describes research and experience in Sweden and France. In Sweden, some 80,000 m2 of roofs (mostly of single storey sheeted structures) use the contraflow system of dynamic insulation and there have been a few experimental installations in the housing sector.
Discusses insulation of lofts, roofs, walls, windows and floors, natural ventilation of dwellings and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in dwellings. Considers cost benefits of weatherstripping and constant-flow ventilators for naturally ventilated houses. Concludes that installation of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery is uneconomic, but adding a heatexchanger to an existing mechanical ventilation system has economic benefits.
Reviews the present state of development of dynamic insulation systems. Describes the advantages and disadvantages and assesses probable applications. Earlier articles and reports on dynamic insulation are listed and commented on. The second part deals with the ventilation design aspects for practical application of dynamic insulation in buildings. One of the points is concerned with how the air flow through the insulation is affected by changing external climate conditions. The risks of condensation in the insulation, particularly with coincident flow systems, is discussed.
Roof space ventilation is necessary to evacuate water vapour to avoid condensation and to conserve the wooden roof supports. It has been affected by 1. increased insulation, 2. snow screens fitted under the roof, 3. increased humidity due to