Reduction of fresh air ventilation is becoming the major means of energy conservation in office buildings. Simultaneously, health and comfort problems experienced by occupants are often suspected to be a direct result of reduced fresh air ventilation. However, there is little data available on health and comfort problems experienced by occupants of buildings operated under normal ventilation rates.
Possible health effects and changes in sensation of comfort among tenants after replacement of single glass windows in leaky frames with double glass windows in airtight frames have been studied. The study design was observational, and included a study group and a corresponding control group. The results indicate essential improvements of the indoor climate and of the health status of the tenants after replacement of the windows (i.e.
An investigation of the minimum fresh air supply per person required to prevent the occurrence of unacceptably offensive odour due to stale air in offices and similar buildings. The study was made under everyday conditions as far as possible, in different buildings, various size rooms, different densities of occupancy, with men or men and women, and with mechanical or natural ventilation.
Describes the work of the Department of Climate and Building Services of the National Swedish Institute for Building Research. Full scale trials, field measurement and measurement technology and methods applied to indoor climate are described. Research on airtight buildings, radon, air quality and efficient ventilation, occupant requirements and effects on human performance is also summarised. Dummies are used to measure heat transport to or from parts of the body, and for measurement of humidity.
The amount of outdoor air supply required in rooms were no one was smoking and only body odour was pesented was investigated using a climate chamer, under clean room conditions. Ten subjects were confined in the room and five panels outside of the room stated the odour level in the sampled air from theroom when compared to clean air. Experiments were performed in four steps of 5,10, 20 and 30 CMH per person. Room temperature was either 22-23 deg C or 32-33 deg C with a relative humidity of 50-60%. The higher temperature was used to study the influence of body odour in sweat.
Although indoor pollution is a greater problem than outdoor pollution, much less research has been devoted to it. Describes the sick building syndrome and an experiment (as distinguished from an opinion poll), comparing a diagnosed sick and a clean modern Swedish preschool. Forty eight previously unexposed subjects were tested in two buildings for two days, and the effect of the exposure was assessed.
Reviews some of the factors which cause indoor air pollution. Includes a general introduction to the subject, lists of prevailing air pollutants and their sources, detailed data from research and stnadard methods of air analysis, a study of the relationship between indoor pollution concentration and health effects and current regulatory trends, especially in the USA.
Considers the dangers of gases which are present in indoor air and which cannot be detected orally. Notes current regulations in Finland governing indoor air quality. Illustrates sense of comfort with example using a bus and various measures to provide satisfactory air to all parts of the bus. Considers current knowledge on air change rates and personal comfort.
States that many health complaints attributed to tight buildings (tight building syndrome) may be alleviated by slightly lowering the thermostat. Discusses the ISO draft proposal DP7730 which defines comfort limits in buildings for occupants according to several comfort parameters.
States that although the conditions for a comfortable climate are well known - especially temperature and air humidity - increased concern with energy conservation means it is important to discover what effect energy conserving measures have on the health,well-being and efficiency of people. Pressing questions are - how far can room temperature be lowered without affecting comfort and how is room air quality affected by a lower air change rate or a reduced fresh air supply. Summarises recommended room temperatures for various levels of activity.