Using principal components analysis and clustering technics to define typical buildings

The present paper presents a method to characterizethe typical building from a group by applyingprincipal components analysis (PCA).The method has been developed on a sampleof secondary education school buildings inGreece. The purpose is to define the typicalbuilding in order to propose generalized improvementsfor energy efficiency of the buildingstock concerned. Therefore seven variables fromquestionnaires have been analyzed: heated surface,age of the building, insulation of the building,number of classrooms, number of students,schools operating hours and age of the heatingsystem.

Schools: All problem buildings?

Seven schools underwent an energy audit, evaluating the existing situation through measurement and simulation and looking to possible retrofit measures and their economic feasibility with the energy performance tool (EPB) as an instrument. The results are troubling. The seven schools audited are all problem buildings: hardly any insulation, windows quite air leaky, central heating systems poorly designed and no usage of an on purpose installed ventilation system.

A NEAT upgrade.

Outlines an updated, expanded tool, NEAT 7.0 which can be used to determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for single-family homes and is aimed at increasing energy efficiency and comfort levels. Its list of recommended measures and the cost and savings information shortcuts the retrofit planning process.

Low-energy cooling conception in office buildings.

Air conditioning is widely used in the office building sector in the French Mediterranean region. Though often a «sine qua non» for renting office space, there is however a widespread feeling that operating and maintaining air-conditioning systems can be troublesome (unreliability, regulation and maintenance difficulties, non uniform comfort conditions, high prices are frequently lamented).

Energy audits.