The Dutch housing stock consists for about 70% of single family houses with an average N50 of about 7-9 ACH and for 30% of apartments with an average N50 of about 3-4 ACH.New single family houses are much more airtight. In the period 1970 to 2000 the air tightness increased to an N50 of about 3 - 4 ACH. Apartments have nowadays about the same or a slightly better air tightness then before 1970.Another trend is the downward tendency of occupant numbers per dwelling.
An idea to build a demonstration house fitted with a hybrid ventilation system arose when Brno University of Technology joined the RESHYVENT project. There has not been much attention paid to the residential ventilation in the Czech Republic. Window airing and passive stack ventilation are still the most common ways of ventilation in residential buildings. In this context a decision was made to build a house equipped with a demand controlled hybrid ventilation system.
One of the most common measures of IAQ (indoor air quality) is carbon dioxide, CO2, generated by human respiration, in particular, where the main source of pollutions are occupants. In this report, the occupancy-related pollutants are considered as the main pollutant source. However, other type of sources may also be removed satisfactory when governing the ventilation system for removal of
This paper presents an integrated IAQ/HVAC simulation environment that can model the impact of contaminant-based demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) strategies on both indoor air quality and HVAC system energy use for multizone buildings. The predictions of the integrated IAQ/HVAC simulation environment are first validated against experimental data obtained from laboratory testing. Then the simulation environment is used to investigate the performance of three ventilation control strategies, namely: one conventional control using fixed-position for outside air damper and two
Carbon-dioxide (CO2) based demand controlled ventilation (DCV) offers the potential for moreenergy efficient building ventilation compared with constant ventilation rates based on designoccupancy. A number of questions related to CO2 DCV exist regarding energy benefits, optimalcontrol strategies, and indoor air quality impacts for contaminants with source strengths that areindependent of the number of occupants. In order to obtain insight into these issues, a simulationstudy was performed in six commercial and institutional building spaces.
In January 2002 the EU RESHYVENT project started, a three-year project within the EU Fifth Framework Programme on the investigation and development of demand controlled hybrid ventilation systems in residential buildings. The project is a clustering of four industrial consortia with a multi-disciplinary scientific consortium. Each of these industrial consortia will develop a working prototype of a hybrid ventilation system for a specific climate.
For energy savings, DCV systems are more and more used in ventilation systems but toestimate their energy savings, variation of occupation in the building (in time and number ofperson) must be estimated. We have enquired on real occupation on site in 27 offices and 13meeting room in France. Occupation rates have been monitored either by webcam or byenquiry to the users. Results show very low occupation rates in meeting rooms although mostpeople feel they are very occupied. Yet effective time of meetings and number of occupantsare less than expected.
A Demand Controlled Hybrid Ventilation System is a two-mode system using natural forces as long as possible and electric fans only if necessary. Sensor technologies are used to establish the exact required airflow for indoor air quality and thermal comfort to a minimal energy demand. A large part of the Dutch dwellings are foreseen with a ventilation system consisting of natural supply with mechanical exhaust. Fan power for these systems typically is 30 - 40 W (Specific Fan Power 0.7 - 1.0 kW/(m3/s)). Small improvements lead to a laboratory reference of 21 W.
In France, in non residential buildings, these systems are generally controlled by either a CO2 sensor or optical movement detection (infrared).The part of the study we present here was to determine :- laboratory tests methods to assess the performances of CO2 sensors for ventilation application.- the working performances of these sensors, and particularly the long term stability in a meeting room.- a methodology to assess the performances of CO2 DCV system in French technical agreementThe main results of this study are :- it is easy to characterize (to calibrate) the sensors- the long term
In low energy dwellings the ventilation heat losses are significant. Reduction of these heat losses can be achieved by introducing demand controlled ventilation i.e. ventilation rates are set below normal level when rooms are no longer occupied. This paper outlines preliminary results on energy conservation and health effects in relation to demand controlled ventilation in a low-energy house.