Demand controlled ventilation in school and office buildings: lessons learnt from case studies

Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) refers to a ventilation system with air flow rates that are controlled based on a measurement of an indoor air quality (IAQ) and/or thermal comfort parameter. DCV operates at reduced air flow rates during a large amount of the operation time. Due to this decrease, less energy is needed for fan operation and heating/cooling the supply air. However, uncertainty still exists about the IAQ performance and ventilation efficiency in the room, especially at lower air flow rates.

Residential demand controlled extract ventilation combined with heat recovery via a heat pump

In this study the performance of a residential demand controlled (DC) extract ventilation system with an air-to-water heat pump was analysed via dynamic simulations. A real life test case was setup to validate results. The ventilation system controls automatically the extract air in functional as well as habitable rooms, ensuring indoor air quality (IAQ). The total extract rate is mixed with outdoor air as heat source of the air-to-water heat pump (2.5 kW at standard reference conditions). Domestic hot water (DHW) as well as space heating (SH) can be alternatively supplied.

Demand controlled ventilation in practice: Case study

Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) can reduce the energy use significantly compared to a constant air volume (CAV) system. However, there is still a large uncertainty about the real energy savings and the ventilation efficiency. Furthermore, control and operation of the system are more complex. To formulate answers to these questions, measurements on a DCV system in a university building in Ghent, Belgium provide insight in the system operation and performance and the air distribution in the classrooms. Monitoring is carried out in March and May 2015.

Monitoring of an innovative room-by-room demand controlled heat recovery system on four locations

Demand controlled heat recovery ventilation systems, which combines heat recovery (HRV) and demand controlled (DCV) is growing fast among ventilation manufacturers.

Several categories can be identified, from global dwelling regulation, to fine room-by-room regulation of the airflow rate. Simulations show that room-by-room demand controlled heat recovery ventilation is the best compromise to optimize at the same time indoor air quality, comfort, and energy savings.

Requirements and hand-over documentation for energy-optimal demand-controlled ventilation

Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) considerably reduce the ventilation airflow rates and energy use compared to Constant Air Volume (CAV) systems. DCV in commercial buildings is probably a prerequisite to achieve ambitious energy-goal. However, evaluation of real energy use demonstrates that the energy saving potential is seldom met. DCV-based ventilation systems must become more reliable to close the gap between theoretical and real energy-performance.

Whole year simulation of humidity based demand controlled hybrid ventilation in multiapartment building

The paper presents the whole year simulation of humidity based demand controlled hybrid ventilation in multiapartment building. The simulation was performed for NAPE (National Energy Conservation Agency) multifamily residential reference building. This allowed the authors to compare obtained results with earlier investigated behaviour of the NAPE building with passive stack ventilation and mechanical exhaust ventilation.

Robustness and True Performance of Demand Controlled Ventilation in Educational Buildings – Review and Needs for Future Development

Although theoretical studies show that energy use for ventilation purposes can be reduced by more than 50% with DCV compared to CAV, evaluation of real energy use demonstrates that this potential is seldom met. DCV-based ventilation systems must become more reliable to close the gap between theoretical and real energy-performance.

Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as "dose") as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term.

System Design for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Multi-Family Dwellings

This paper presents an investigation into solutions for the system design of a centralized DCV system in multi-family dwellings. The design focused on simple and inexpensive solutions. A cost benefit estimate showed that the initial cost of implementing DCV in a system with an efficient heat exchanger should not exceed 3400 DKK per dwelling in regions with weather conditions similar to the Danish climate. A design expected to fulfil this requirement was investigated in detail with regard to its electricity consumption by evaluation of different control strategies.