The definition of a good indoor climate is important to the success of a passenger rail coach, not only because it will decide its energy consumption and thus influence its sustainability but also because good comfort for long journeys is essential. A survey in a coach investigating the thermal and air quality environment was undertaken. The intention is to use the results to optimise the control of the ventilation system to provide an indoor climate that passengers will find comfortable.
This paper introduces a concept of robustness of an air distribution method, which is defined as being capable of meeting the ventilation requirements during varying operational conditions. The robustness performance may be particularly important when the system allows individual control of the supply air parameters. As a preliminary example, plenum-based (ductless) air distribution methods are studied using computational fluid dynamics.
This research grows out of a desire to find a Solar-Wind Generated Roof Ventilation System for low-cost dwellings located in high building density urban areas where horizontal air movement is restricted. A general purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD-ACE+) program was utilised to explore, analyse and develop a roof model based on its aerodynamics and thermal performance to obtain optimum wind pressure and temperature differences. Comparisons were made with physical scale models.
In the present study, a numerical simulation to simulate an experiment for evaluating the cross-ventilation performance at an inflow opening by using Large Eddy Simulation (LES), the standard k-e model, and Durbin's k-e model was performed. Results showed that too much turbulent kinetic energy was produced at the leeward opening frame in the standard k-e model. However , Durbin's k-e model improved this defect , and reproduced the wind tunnel results fairly well, as did the LES approach.
To evaluate the property of cross ventilation quantitatively, it is important that the calculated air flow field is compared with measurement. In this paper, the air flow field in the wind tunnel of the Building Research Institute of Japan (BRI) was calculated by CFD analysis using the standard k- e model, and the adequacy of the calculation was examined by comparison with measured values.
The mechanism of cross ventilation is dealt with in this paper. The results are obtained by a combination of wind tunnel studies and CFD predictions using a Reynolds stress model as the turbulence model. All buildings have been exposed to a uniform velocity field and therefore the reference flow rate for an opening is equal to the velocity multiplied by the opening area. The openings were located at or close to the position of the stagnation point on the corresponding sealed building.
Terrorist attack in buildings by chemical and biological agents (CBAs) is a reality in our lives. This study applies computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict CBA dispersion in an office building in order to find the best locations for CBA sensors and to develop effective ventilation systems to protect building occupants in case of indoor CBA releases. It is found that the CFD is a useful tool for such an application, while some challenges remain.
The goal of this work is to investigate the ability of three eddy viscosity turbulent models, the standardk-?, the RNG k-? and the k-?, in predicting the three-dimensional airflow in a room under forcedconvection. The experimental data from Nielsen (1990), which represents a large room where the airenters horizontally at the top of one side and leaves the room at the bottom of the opposite side, wasused to validate the models. The mean velocity and the turbulence intensity profiles for Reynoldsnumber of 5,000 are presented in two planes of the room with two inlet arrangements.
This paper gave an overview of the past and present applications of various Computational FluidDynamics (CFD) methods for indoor environment modeling. Typical applications used the CFD tocalculate airflow, air temperature, contaminant concentrations, and turbulence in enclosed environmentfor studying or designing thermal comfort and indoor air quality. With simple airflow and geometry, theCFD is capable of calculating accurately mean flow parameters but less accurately turbulenceparameters.
The passive cooling techniques such as night time cross ventilation is potentially an interesting strategy to provide substantial cooling energy savings in warm climates. The efficiency of the night cooling ventilation is determined by three main factors: the external air flow rate in the room, the flow pattern and the thermal mass distribution. Most of the software used to simulate building thermal performance assumes natural convection in the enclosure; therefore the convective heat transfer coefficients for internal room surfaces are underestimated.