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computational fluid dynamics

Dynamic Insulation System applied to Window Frames (Part 1) - Evaluation of the thermal insulation efficiency of the proposed window frames

In order to insulate buildings more efficiently, many insulation methods have been proposed and successfully applied to the building envelope, including areas such as walls and windows. However, it is also important to insulate window frames efficiently because they usually contribute the greatest heat loss. The authors propose a new dynamic insulation system for window frames, with an active ventilation function and a heat pump for heat recovery.

Numerical prediction of particle transport passed through ventilator by CFD with Lagrangian method

The use of CFD technique for predicting the properties of airflow fields and particle movement is effective to carry out parametric study intended for a wide range of particle sizes. In this study, particle dispersions due to turbulent flow and thermophoretic effect were analyzed for a simplified ventilator model. Numerical results that comprise a classification of particle motion, temperature difference and particle diameter were reported.

Possible Air Pumping Action in a Room Fire

The air pumping effect of a fire plume, proposed years ago, to give a higher air intake rate through vertical openings in a compartment fire is further investigated in this paper. Equations for the air intake rate through vertical openings found in the literature are reviewed. As most of the reported correlation expressions were derived empirically from experiments, results might be different if the fire geometry, fuel type and ambient conditions are different.

An Optimization Method of Sensor Layout to Improve Source Identification Accuracy in the Indoor Environment

This study presents an optimization method of sensor layout to improve identification accuracy of indoor contaminant sources. The method integrates an index, the performance of sensor layout (PSL), with a two-step screening procedure to determine sensor layouts that have potential to achieve relatively high levels of accuracy in source identification. Using the PSL, the performance of each possible sensor layout can be predicted and evaluated, and therefore the optimization method can be performed without running a source identification model.

Natural Personalised Ventilation - A Novel Approach

The need to protect susceptible patients from cross-infection resulting from airborne pathogens is essential in hospitals, especially when patient immunity is either suppressed due to medical procedures or compromised by ailment. Personalised ventilation (PV) is a method of creating a local zone of high air quality around such patients. However, contemporary PV techniques are based on mechanical ventilation, which adds to the energy burden of healthcare buildings. In single-bed wards, a potential source of infection could be other occupants such as visitors and healthcare workers.

Simulation of Atrium Smoke Filling by Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is evidently relevant to the study of fires, yet the intermediate chemistry has yet to be factored successfully into combustion models. Consequently, predicted airflow patterns, together with pressure and temperature contours, are mostly used in evaluating the performance of smoke control systems. But even using these assumptions, very few studies exist comparing predicted results from CFD with experimental findings. This leaves research with a paucity of data on how smoke is likely to spread, fill and be controlled in large halls.

Analysis of contaminant remowal efficiency assessment in a ventilated room

This paper reports a critical analysis of the assessment of contaminant removal efficiency. Measurements have been carried out in a ventilated room equipped with a pine wood floor, which emits Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), considered as air pollutants in this paper. Thereafter, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed. CFD results are compared to measurements to check their accuracy. Moreover, air quality within the ventilated room is numerically analysed via indices.

Analysis of Spot Cooling in an Underground Subway Station

Railway platform spot cooling has become an increasingly attractive means to improve thermal comfort conditions of existing subway stations. This paper presents a systematic approach to evaluate the effectiveness of platform spot cooling. The subway environment is first analysed by a simple onedimensional network model, which is able to estimate the bulk air temperature from the available spot cooling. The localized effects of spot cooling are then investigated using CFD.

Comparison of a CFD fire model against a ventilated fire experiment in an enclosure

The definition of a good indoor climate is important to the success of a passenger rail coach, not only because it will decide its energy consumption and thus influence its sustainability but also because good comfort for long journeys is essential. A survey in a coach investigating the thermal and air quality environment was undertaken. The intention is to use the results to optimise the control of the ventilation system to provide an indoor climate that passengers will find comfortable.

Robustness of air distribution in plenum-based ductless ventilation systems

This paper introduces a concept of robustness of an air distribution method, which is defined as being capable of meeting the ventilation requirements during varying operational conditions. The robustness performance may be particularly important when the system allows individual control of the supply air parameters. As a preliminary example, plenum-based (ductless) air distribution methods are studied using computational fluid dynamics.