The air quality at the breathing zone with displacement ventilation.

This paper presents the difference in the air quality between that perceived by the occupants (breathing zone) and that in the occupied zone as a whole. An environmental chamber with displacement ventilation system has been used to carry out the measurements with the presence of a heated mannequin and other heat sources. Measurements of the age of air distribution, the air exchange index and the ventilation effectiveness were carried out at different points in the chamber for different room loads.

Numerical study of airflow structure of a cross ventilated model building.

With the purpose of evaluating validity of the application of CFO on the problems of cross-ventilation, numerical simulation was performed, using standard k- E model and two types of modified k-E models which improve evaluation accuracy in production term of turbulence energy, and also using LES, and the results were compared with those of the corresponding wind tunnel experiment. As a result, it was found that the defects of the model characteristic to the standard k- E model could be improved to a certain extent by application of the modified models.

Academy Mont-Cenis: planning of natural ventilation and daylighting in a large microclimatic envelope.

For the academy Mont Cenis in Herne, Germany, a large microclimatic glass envelope (72m x 1.80m x 15m) with separate buildings inside the envelope, a concept for the natural ventilation was put up and a program for the control of the motor driven windows in the facades and in the roof was developed. To comprise the influence of wind speed, wind direction and the temperature difference between the envelope and the environment, numerous CFD-calculations were carried out on the base of a wind tunnel test and dynamic thermal calculations.

Significant limitations in applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict room air distribution: guidelines for beginners.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to predict the indoor environment airflow and overall ventilation effectiveness of natural or mechanical air distribution systems. This paper highlights some applications and criticism work made on CFD in order to establish an understanding of the limitations of CFD in predicting room airflow. It is concluded that though CFD is a powerful tool for simulation, the software complexities, computational power and the level of expertise that CFD codes require shape the greatest challenges to beginners in this field.

Integration of indoor and outdoor airflow study for natural ventilation design using CFD.

Natural ventilation is one of the most fundamental techniques to reduce energy usage inbuildings. However, due to complicated site plans and building layouts, it is difficult todesign optimal layouts for the enhancement of ventilation without knowledge about the flowpatterns. The employment of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) tools in the design processcan give predictive feedback to the designers, allowing them to optimize airflow around thesite to decide on building placement, orientation, and interior space layout.

Simulation of infiltration heat recovery.

Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to affect the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Results from detailed computational fluid dynamics simulations of five wall geometries over a range of infiltration rates show that heat transfer between the infiltrating air and walls can be substantial, reducing the impact of infiltration.

Influence of a Cooled Ceiling on Indoor Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room Examined by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics

The influence of a cooled ceiling on the air quality in a displacement ventilated room is examined by means of CFD. The objective of the study is to examine how the flow field in a displacement ventilated room is influenced when a cooled ceiling removes a major part of the total heat load, and in particular to examine the effect on the contaminant distribution and the indoor air quality. The simulations show that the inclusion of a cooled ceiling has a significant impact on the flow field but only a minor influence on the personal exposure in this study.

Residential kitchen range hoods - buoyancy-capture principle and capture efficiency revisited.

A buoyancy-capture principle is firstly revisited as the most important fluid dynamics mechanism in kitchen range hoods. A recent new derivation of the capture efficiency of a kitchen range hood, which eliminates the inconsistencies and inadequacies of existing derivations, shows that the capture efficiency equals the ratio of capture flow rate to total plume flow rate in a confined space. The result is applied here, together with the buoyancy-capture principle, to derive a simple formula for determining capture efficiency.

Simulation made easy.