Flow pattern in ventilated rooms with large depth and width.

In many buildings, for instance tunnels, underground, parking areas and industrial halls, the L/H is so large that the flow pattern induced by a two dimensional supply air jet along the ceiling can be completely different from that in rooms of normal sizes. Earlier model experiments indicate that, in this case, the supply jet will have a limited penetration length (Ire) because the entrainment generates a backward flow in the lower part of the ventilated space which at a given distance will disperse or deflect the jet.

Comparison of experimental and numerical test results of the airflow in a room with displacement ventilation.

The paper presents a comparison between the results of experimental tests airflow pattern forming in a room with displacement ventilation and numerical calculation. The heat source in the room was a heating plate. Quasi-laminar diffusers supplied the air with the ventilation change rate from l to 7 h-1. Temperature and velocity distributions in the plume and in its surroundings as well as the tracer gas concentrations in the background were measured. The airflow in the room was also predicted by means of CFD, using the standard k-E turbulence model and standard log-law wall-functions.

The effect of location of a convective heat source on displacement ventilation: CFD study.

Two-dimensional computational simulations are performed to examine the effect of vertical location of a convective heat source on thermal displacement ventilation systems. In this study, a heat source is modeled with seven different heights from the floor (0.5m, 0.75m, 1.0m, 1.25m, 1.5m, 1.75m, 2.0m) in a displacement ventilation environment. The flow and temperature fields in thermal displacement ventilation systems vary depending on the location of the heat source. As a heat source rises, the convective heat gain from the heat source to an occupied zone becomes less significant.

Improvement of CFD application in ventilated enclosures: a test case.

The aim of this study is to improve the utilization of CFD approach in the applications of air conditioning technology. More precisely, to establish principles and recommendations to follow in order to design air distribution systems in small enclosures at low room air changes per hour by means of CFD technique. By the use of a commercial code, Fluent, the accuracy and reliability of such a numerical simulation are elucidated in this work for a mixing ventilation system; the air supply terminal is a commercial diffuser which creates a complicated 3D - wall jet below the ceiling.

Indoor and outdoor airflow simulation by a zero equation turbulence model.

In order to simulate indoor air distribution and airflow around buildings quickly and accurately by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) technique, a new zero-equation turbulence model and momentum method for inlet boundary condition are adopted. The new version of STACH-3, a three-dimensional CFD software is developed based on these. An example for outdoor airflow around an isolated building is given as well. For those high-density buildings with complex geometry, the TSM (Two Step Method) is proposed.

Finite element calculation of natural ventilation.

The intention of this paper is not to compare discretization schemes but to show some advantages of a stabilized finite element method for modelling natural ventilation. Based on the finite element theory we present a formulation of boundary conditions that can be used for most ventilation openings in buildings. Stationary as well as transient situations can be considered without modelling of the outdoor space. Mathematical background and implementation details are discussed. Results are presented for ventilation of a living room at typical outdoor conditions.

The effect of object positions on ventilation performance.

The effect of the change in object positions (i.e. office furniture) on the air quality in a room was studied using zonal purging flow rates. In relation to the zonal purging flow rate in a room, the transfer probability from the inlet to a certain zone can provide information on the amount of fresh air from the inlet to the zone. In this study, the probability obtained from Markov chain theory was used to analyze the ventilation performance.

Numerical modelling of three dimensional ventilation duct flow.

Presented in the paper is an efficient and accurate numerical method for simulation of ventilation duct flow. The mathematical method is based on the three-dimensional incompressible RANS equations with isotropic k-w near-wall turbulence closures, written in generalized curvilinear coordinates in strong conservation form. The numerical method presented here is used to calculate the turbulent flow through a bend of rectangular ventilation duct featuring pressure induced secondary motions and rotation effects on turbulence.

Numerical simulation of transient effects of window openings.

This work is centered on the transient analysis of natural ventilation provided by a single side opening when only indoor-outdoor temperature differences are present (no wind). Using both simplified "engineering" models and a CFD commercial code (2D), different cases have been examined by varying indoor-outdoor temperature difference, window size, and including or not a heating appliance in the room.

Effect of thermal mass on the airflow and ventilation in passive building design.

Air may be pre-cooled using thermal mass before it is supplied to an occupied space. One option is to pre-cool the air in a basement space and exhaust the air at high level through stacks. However, the thermal forces that determine the direction of airflow, including heat gains in the occupied space, thermal mass cooling and the external air temperature may counter each other, and result in flow reversal.